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HUNGARY, King Béla Árpád

HUNGARY, King Béla Árpád

Male 1017 - 1063  (~ 46 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

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  • Name HUNGARY, Béla Árpád 
    Prefix King 
    Nickname The Champion 
    Born Jul 1017  Komárom-Esztergom, Ungarn, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Buried Sep 1063  Szekszard, Tolna, Ungarn, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Died 11 Sep 1063  Dömös, Esztergom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location 
    WAC 12 Apr 1940  SLAKE Find all individuals with events at this location 
    _TAG Reviewed on FS 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I46631  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith | Joseph Sr., Lucy Mack
    Last Modified 19 Jan 2020 

    Father ARPAD, King Vazul ,   b. 976, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1037, Esztergom, Komárom Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 61 years) 
    Mother KATUN, Princess Anastasia ,   b. Abt 978, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 18 Oct 1016, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 38 years) 
    Family ID F18493  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Father ARPAD, King Vazul ,   b. 976, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1037, Esztergom, Komárom Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 61 years) 
    Mother KIEV, Princess Premislava Vladimirovna ,   b. 984, Kiev, Kiev, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1018, Somme, Picardie, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 34 years) 
    Family ID F30781  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family POLAND, Princess Ryksa Miciszlava ,   b. 1015, Kraków, Kraków, Poland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Jan 1108, Turov, Belarus Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 93 years) 
    Married 1033 
    +1. HUNGARY, King Geza ,   b. 1039, Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 25 Apr 1077, Nitra, Nitriansky, Slovakia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years)
    +2. HUNGARY, King Laszlo ,   b. 27 Jun 1040, Krakow, Kingdom of Poland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 29 Jul 1095, Kraków, Kraków, Poland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 55 years)
     3. HUNGARY, Prince Lambert ,   b. Abt 1042, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 1096  (Age ~ 54 years)
    +4. HUNGARY, Princess Zsofia ,   b. Abt 1044, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 18 Jun 1095, Sachsen, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 51 years)
     5. HUNGARY, Princess Lanka ,   b. Abt 1047, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 1095, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 47 years)
     6. HUNGARY, Princess Ilona ,   b. 1050, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1089, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 39 years)
     7. HUNGARY, Eufemia ,   b. Abt 1051, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Apr 1111  (Age ~ 60 years)
    +8. HUNGARY, Princess Maria ,   b. Abt 1052, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 21 Sep 1089  (Age ~ 37 years)
     9. HUNGARY Princess ,   b. 1054, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1132  (Age 78 years)
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F19632  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
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  • Photos
    As a young man

  • Notes 
    • BIO: King of Hungary, 1060-63; Lord of one-third of Hungary, 1048.

      ** from http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#GezaIA, as of 11/24/2014
      BÉLA, son of VÁSZOLY [Vazúl] Prince of Hungary, Duke between March and Gran & his wife --- of the Bulgarians (1016-Kanisza creek Dec 1063, bur Szekszárd Abbey). The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Andreas postea rex, secundus…dux Bella demum rex, tertius dux Levente" as the three sons of "dux Vazul"[463]. The Gesta Hungarorum names (in order) "Andrea, Bela et Luenta, filiis Zarladislai" when recording that King István advised them to flee to Bohemia after the mutilation of Vazúl, the commentary suggesting that their father's name was changed by the compiler of the Gesta to disguise the fact that later Hungarian kings were descended from the blinded Vazúl[464]. In a later passage, the Gesta reports claims that the three brothers were "ex duce Wazul progenitos ex quadam virgine de genere Tatun" rather than legitimate[465]. The Gesta records that the brothers moved from Bohemia to Poland during the second reign of King Péter and that Béla defeated "Pomoramiæ ducem" in single combat and married "filia Miskæ [Polonorum duce]"[466]. He was baptised in [1037/39] at Gnesen [Gniezno] as ADALBERT[467]. Béla returned to Hungary with his brothers in 1046, and was invested as Duke between March and Gran in 1048, but at some stage returned to Poland. When his brother King András crowned his infant son Salamon as associate king in 1057, Béla was provoked into taking action to secure his own rights of succession. He left Poland with his family and in 1060 invaded Hungary with a large force, with Polish support, captured King András who died a few days later, and assumed power as BÉLA I "Benin" King of Hungary, crowned at Székesfehérvár. The Chronicon Posoniense records bitter disputes in 1060 between "Andream et fratrem eius Bela" and that "Andreas rex" died[468], which suggests that the death may have been violent. The Annales of Berthold record that in 1060 "Belo fratrum suum Andream…expulit" in Hungary[469]. The Gesta Hungarorum records the accession of "Benyn Bela", commenting that the Hungarians abandoned the faith and baptism for a year before returning to the faith[470]. Hungarian forces conquered and settled Syrmium in [1060][471]. German forces invaded Hungary in support of ex-King Salamon, but King Béla died soon afterwards in his summer palace of Dömös after his throne toppled on him[472]. The Gesta Hungarorum records the death of King Béla in the third year of his reign and his burial at "monasterio…Sceugzard [Szekszárd]"[473]. The Chronicon Varadiense records the death "III Id Sep" in 1063 of "Bela dictus Belin secundus filius Vazul" and his burial "in suo monasterio Sexardiensi"[474].

      m (in Poland [1039/42]) [RYKSA] of Poland, daughter of MIESZKO II LAMBERT King of Poland & his wife Richeza [Ezzonen] ([1018]-after 1059). The Gesta Hungarorum records the marriage of Béla and "filia Miskæ [Polonorum duce]" while he was in exile in Poland but does not name her[475]. The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska records that "Bela" married "rex Polonie filiam"[476]. Ryksa is shown as her possible name in Europäische Stammtafeln[477], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.

      King Béla & his wife had eight children:
      1. GÉZA ([in Poland] [1044/45]-25 Apr 1077, bur Vac). He succeeded his cousin in 1074 as GÉZA I King of Hungary
      2. LANKA ([1045]-1095). m (before 1064) ROSTISLAV Vladimirovich Prince of Rostov, Novgorod and Vladimir in Volynia, son of VLADIMIR Iaroslavich of Kiev Prince of Novgorod & his wife Oda von Stade ([1045]-3 Feb 1067). Prince of Tmutorokan 1064-1065.
      3. ZSÓFIA ([1045/50]-18 Jun 1095, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis). m firstly ([1062/63]) ULRICH I Marchese of Carniola and Istria, son of POPPO I [von Weimar] Marchese of Carniola and Istria & his wife Hadamut of Istria (-6 Mar 1070). m secondly (after 6 Mar 1070) MAGNUS of Saxony, son of ORDULF Duke in Saxony [Billung] & his first wife Wulfhild of Norway (-Erthensburg 25 Aug 1106, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis). He succeeded his father in 1072 as MAGNUS Duke in Saxony.
      4. LÁSZLÓ (in Poland [1046/50][489]-Nitra 20 Jun 1095, bur Somogyvár, transferred 1192 to Nagyvárad Cathedral[490]). He succeeded his brother in 1077 as LÁSZLÓ I King of Hungary. m ([1077 or after]) ADELHEID von Rheinfelden, daughter of RUDOLF Graf von Rheinfelden Duke of Swabia [anti-King of Germany] & his second wife Adelaide de Savoie ([1063/65]-3 May 1090, bur St Blasius).
      5. EUFÉMIA [Ludmilla] (-2 Apr 1111). m (before 1073) OTTO I "der Schöne" Duke of Brno and Olmütz, son of BŘETISLAV Duke of the Bohemians & his wife Judith von Schweinfurt (-9 Jul [1087], bur Graditz).
      6. daughter. She adopted the name MARIA in Byzantium. m (1068) ANDRONIKOS Dukas, son of Emperor KONSTANTINOS X & his second wife Evdokia Makrembolitissa ([1057]-after 1081). He was crowned co-Emperor by his brother Emperor Mikhael VII after the latter assumed sole rule in Oct 1071.
      7. LAMBERT (after 1050-[1095]). Comes Palatinus Petrus et comes Acha…"[530].
      8. ILONA [Lepa] (-before 1095). In [1090], she assumed power as ILONA Queen of Croatia. m ([1064]) ZVONIMIR DMITAR Ban of Slavonia, son of --- (-after 1089). He was crowned [late 1075/early 1076] as ZVONIMIR DMITAR King of Croatia.

      King Béla had one [probably illegitimate] child by [an unknown mistress]:
      9. ZSÓFIA (-after 1116). m ([1077/95]) Count LAMBERT, of the Hont-Pázmány family (-1132).

      ** from Wikipedia listing for Béla I of Hungary, as of 11/24/2014
      Béla I the Champion or the Wisent (Hungarian: I. Bajnok or Bölény Béla,[1] Slovak: Belo I.; before 1020 – 11 September 1063) was King of Hungary from 1060 until his death. He descended from a younger branch of the Árpád dynasty. Béla's baptismal name was Adalbert. He left Hungary together with his brothers, Levente and Andrew, after the execution of Vazul, their father, in 1031. Béla settled in Poland and married Richeza (or Adelaide), daughter of King Mieszko II of Poland.

      He returned to his homeland upon the invitation of his brother Andrew, who had in the meantime been crowned King of Hungary. Andrew assigned the administration of the so-called ducatus or "duchy", which encompassed around one-third of the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, to Béla. The two brothers' relationship became tense when Andrew had his own son, Solomon, crowned king and forced Béla to publicly confirm Solomon's right to the throne in 1057 or 1058. Béla, assisted by his Polish relatives, rebelled against his brother and dethroned him in 1060. He introduced monetary reform and subdued the last uprising aimed at the restoration of paganism in Hungary. Béla was mortally injured when his throne collapsed while he was sitting on it.

      Childhood (before 1031)
      Most Hungarian chronicles, including Simon of Kéza's Gesta Hungarorum and the Illuminated Chronicle, record that Béla's father was Ladislaus the Bald, a cousin of Stephen, the first King of Hungary.[2] However, many of the same sources add that it "is sometimes claimed" that Béla and his two brothers—Levente and Andrew—were in fact the sons of Ladislaus the Bald's brother, Vazul.[2] The chronicles also refer to gossip claiming that the three brothers were their father's illegitimate sons, born to "a girl from the Tátony clan".[3][4] Modern historians, who accept the latter reports' reliability, unanimously write that the three brothers were the sons of Vazul and his concubine.[2]

      Béla was born between 1015 and 1020.[5] It is debated whether Béla was a second or a third son. The former view is represented, for example, by the Polish historian Wincenty Swoboda,[6] and the latter by the Hungarian scholars Gyula Kristó and Ferenc Makk.[4] Kristó and Makk write that Béla's name "most probably" derived from the Turkish adjective bujla ("noble").[4] However, the name may also be connected to the Slavic word for white (bjelij) or to the Biblical name Bela.[4]

      In exile (1031–c. 1048)
      King Stephen's only son who survived infancy, Emeric, died on 2 September 1031.[7][8] Thereafter, Vazul had the strongest claim to succeed the King.[9] However, the monarch, suspecting that Vazul inclined towards paganism, favored his own sister's son, Peter Orseolo.[10] In order to ensure his nephew's succession,[11] Stephen had Vazul blinded.[7] Béla and his two brothers fled from the kingdom.[12]

      They first settled in Bohemia, but their "condition of life was poor and mean"[13] there.[12] They moved to Poland, where "they received a warm reception"[14] from King Mieszko II.[15][16] According to the Hungarian chronicles, Béla participated in a Polish expedition against the pagan Pomeranians and defeated their duke "in single combat".[14][17] The Illuminated Chronicle narrates that the Polish monarch "praised the boldness and strength of Duke Béla and bestowed on him all the Pomeranian tribute".[18][17] The King even gave his daughter—named either Richeza or Adelaide—in marriage to Béla[16] and granted "a goodly quantity of land"[18] to him.[17] Makk says that Béla was not baptized until just before his marriage;[5] his baptismal name was the Germanic[not in citation given] one of Adalbert.[17]

      Béla fighting against the Pomeranian duke
      At that time the Pomeranians refused to pay their yearly tribute to the Duke of Poland, to whom they were subject. The Duke set out to exact by force of arms the tribute due to him from the Pomeranians. Then the Pomeranians, who were pagans, and the Poles, who were Christians, agreed together that their leaders should meet each other in a duel, and if the Pomeranian fell defeated, he would render the customary tribute; and if the Pole, then he might bewail its loss. Since [the] Duke [Mieszko] and his sons shrank in fear from the duel to be fought, [Béla] presented himself before them and through an interpreter spoke thus: 'If it is pleasing to you, Poles, and to the lord Duke, although I am of nobler birth than that pagan, yet I will fight for the advantage of your kingdom and for the honour of the Duke.' This was pleasing both to the Pomeranians and to the Poles. When they met in combat, armed with lances, [Béla] is said to have struck the Pomeranian so manfully that he unseated him from his horse; and the Pomeranian could not move from the spot where he had fallen, and [Béla] smote him with his sword. Then the Duke of the Pomeranians confessed himself at fault; and the Pomeranians, seeing this, humbly submitted to the Duke of Poland and paid the accustomed tribute without murmuring.
      —The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle[19]

      King Mieszko II died in 1034; his son and heir, Casimir was forced to leave Poland.[20] A period of anarchy followed, which lasted at least until 1039 when Casimir returned.[21] According to Kristó and Makk, Béla was staying in Poland during this period; he even may have administered the kingdom in the name of his absent brother-in-law.[17] On the other hand, the Polish historian, Manteuffel writes that Béla and his two brothers, in contrast with the unanimous report of the Hungarian chronicles, arrived in Poland only with Casimir, after 1039.[22] It is beyond a doubt that Levente and Andrew departed from Poland[16] in about 1038, because—according to the Illuminated Chronicle—they did not want to "live the life of hangers-on in the Duke of Poland's court, regarded only as Béla's brothers".[23][17]

      Duke in Hungary (c. 1048–1060)
      Upon leaving Poland, Andrew and Levente settled in Kiev.[16] They returned to Hungary after a rebellion which was dominated by pagans broke out against King Peter Orseolo in 1046.[24] The King was dethroned, and Andrew was proclaimed king.[25] Levente died in the same year and Andrew, still childless, decided to invite Béla back to Hungary.[26]

      Having lost one brother, King Andreas sent to Poland to his other brother Bela, calling him with great love and saying: "Once we shared poverty and labour together, and now I ask you, most beloved brother, that you come to me without tarrying, so that we may be companions in joy and share in the good things of the kingdom, rejoicing in each other's presence. For I have neither heir nor brother except you. You shall be my heir, and you shall succeed me in the kingdom." Won by these words, Béla came to the King with all his family. When the King saw him, he rejoiced with a great joy, because he was fortified by his brother's strength. Then the King and his brother Bela held a council and divided the kingdom into three parts, of which two remained under the proprietorship of the royal majesty or power and the third was put under the proprietorship of the Duke. This first division of the kingdom became the seed of discord and wars between the dukes and the kings of Hungary.
      —The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle[27]

      Urged by his brother, Béla returned in 1048 and received one-third of the kingdom, with the title of duke.[28][29] Béla's ducatus or "duchy" encompassed large territories along the eastern and northern borders, including the regions of Nyitra (Nitra, Slovakia) and Bihar (Biharia, Romania).[16][28] He possessed a wide range of royal prerogatives, including coinage.[28] The half-denars minted for him bore the inscription BELA DUX ("Duke Béla").[16] According to Steinhübel, the mid-11th-century timber and earth walls of the fortress of Nyitra were erected in Béla's reign.[16]

      11th-century Hungary
      The two brothers closely collaborated in the subsequent years.[30] According to the Illuminated Chronicle, they together worked out a military strategy against the Germans, who were frequently invading the kingdom in the early 1050s.[31] Ferenc Makk writes that Béla's epithets—the Champion or the Wisent—are connected to his fighting against the Germans.[5] The chronicler emphasizes that Andrew and Béla "lived in a great tranquillity of peace"[32] even after Andrew fathered a son, Solomon,[26] in 1053.[33] Béla was one of the lords witnessing the deed of the foundation of the Tihany Abbey, a Benedictine monastery that his brother established in 1055.[33]

      Béla chooses the sword
      The two brothers' good relationship deteriorated after King Andrew had the child Solomon crowned king in 1057 or 1058.[34][5][35] The coronation was the consequence of the peace negotiations with the Holy Roman Empire, because the Germans did not acquiesce in a marriage between Solomon and Judith—the sister of the young German monarch, Henry IV—until Solomon's right to succeed his father was declared and publicly confirmed.[30][34] Thereafter Andrew was determined to secure the throne for his son.[30] He invited Béla to his manor in Tiszavárkony, where the King offered his brother a seemingly free choice between a crown and a sword (which were the symbols of the royal and ducal power, respectively).[25] However, he had ordered that Béla be murdered if he chose the crown.[36] Having been informed of his brother's secret plan by one of his own partisans in the royal court, Béla opted for the sword, but he departed for Poland after the meeting.[25]

      He returned to Hungary, in the autumn of 1060, with Polish troops that Duke Boleslaus the Bold of Poland had provided.[37][38][39] Around the same time, German reinforcements arrived in Hungary to assist King Andrew against Béla.[37] The ensuing civil war ended with the victory of Béla, who defeated his brother in two successive battles fought at the river Tisza and at Moson.[37] The King was seriously injured and died soon afterward.[25][30] His partisans took his son, the child Solomon, to Germany.[30][40]

      His reign (1060–1063)
      Béla's coronation
      Béla was crowned king in Székesfehérvár on 6 December 1060.[39] He ordered that "the wives and sons and all the property of all those who had followed" his nephew to Germany "should be protected and kept safe and sound",[41] which induced many of Solomon's partisans to reconcile themselves to Béla's rule and return to Hungary.[37] He reformed the coinage and introduced "large coins of purest silver"[41] into circulation.[42] In order to stabilize the new currency, Béla maximized the prices and eliminated the black market.[42] He also ordered that weekly markets should be held on Saturdays, instead of Sundays, in the kingdom.[42] The historian Nora Berend says that the latter measure "may have adversely affected Jewish activities", because Jews, who observed the Sabbath, could not work on Saturdays.[43]

      Béla decided to discuss his innovations with the representatives of the freemen, and "sent heralds throughout all Hungary to summon two elders with gift of speech from each village to a royal council",[44] according to the Illuminated Chronicle.[45] A great crowd of commoners gathered in Székesfehérvár in 1061.[30] They demanded the restoration of paganism and the murder of clergymen, but Béla collected his army and suppressed their uprising within three days.[30][45]

      Béla attempted to conclude a peace treaty with the Holy Roman Empire.[46] For this purpose, shortly after his coronation, he released all German commanders who had assisted his brother during the civil war.[37] However, the young German monarch's advisors refused Béla's proposals.[47] In the summer of 1063, an assembly of the German princes decided to launch a military expedition against Hungary to restore young Solomon to the throne.[47] Béla was planning to abdicate in favor of his nephew if the latter restored his former ducatus, but he was seriously injured when "his throne broke beneath him"[48] in his manor at Dömös.[45][49] The King—who was "half-dead",[48] according to the Illuminated Chronicle—was taken to the western borders of his kingdom, where he died at the creek Kinizsa on 11 September 1063.[50][51] Béla was buried in the Benedictine Szekszárd Abbey, which he had set up in 1061.[51] Following Béla's death, his three sons—Géza, Ladislaus and Lampert—sought refuge in Poland, and Solomon ascended the throne.[30]

      Béla married, in about 1033, a daughter of King Mieszko II of Poland.[52] According to Makk, her name was either Richesa or Adelheid.[5] Their eldest children, Géza and Ladislaus—who became kings of Hungary in 1074 and 1077, respectively—were born in Poland in the 1040s.[53] Béla's third son, Lampert, was born after Béla's return to Hungary.[53]

      Lampert was followed by a daughter named Sophia, who was first married to Margrave Ulric I of Carniola, and later to Duke Magnus of Saxony.[54] Her younger sister, Euphemia, became the wife of Duke Otto I of Olomouc.[53] Béla's third daughter, Helena, was the queen of King Demetrius Zvonimir of Croatia.[53] An unnamed daughter of Béla became the first wife of a Hungarian nobleman, Lampert of the Clan Hont-Pázmány.[53] According to the historian Martin Dimnik, Béla also fathered a fifth daughter, Lanka, who was the wife of Prince Rostislav Vladimirovich of Tmutarakan.[55]

      References--see Wikipedia listing directly

      Primary sources
      Simon of Kéza: The Deeds of the Hungarians (Edited and translated by László Veszprémy and Frank Schaer with a study by Jenő Szűcs) (1999). CEU Press. ISBN 963-9116-31-9.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle: Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum (Edited by Dezső Dercsényi) (1970). Corvina, Taplinger Publishing. ISBN 0-8008-4015-1.

      ** from The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Medieval Civilization (A. Grabois), p 106--
      Bela I King of Hungary (1060-77). In 1058 he rebelled against his brother Andrew, with the support of the nobility, which feared the German expansion. His reign was a period of compromise between the royal prerogative and the nobility.

      ** from The Encyclopedia of World History (William Langer, 1962)p 245
      Hungary 1061-63. Bela I, brother of Andrew and popular hero of the campaigns against the Germans.