EmmaHaleSmith
"I desire the Spirit of God to know and understand myself,
that I might be able to overcome whatever of tradition or
nature that would not tend to my exaltation in the eternal
worlds. I desire a fruitful, active mind, that I may be able to comprehend the designs of God, when revealed through His servants without doubting."
First Name:  Last Name: 
Maiden Married
[Advanced Search]  [Surnames]

Donate Now
HUNGARY, Duke Almos

HUNGARY, Duke Almos

Male Abt 1075 - 1127  (~ 52 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

 Set As Default Person    

Personal Information    |    Media    |    Notes    |    Event Map    |    All    |    PDF

  • Name HUNGARY, Almos 
    Prefix Duke 
    Born Abt 1075  Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Buried Sep 1127  Székesfehérvár, Fejér, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Died 1 Sep 1127  Istanbul, Fatih, İstanbul, Turkey Find all individuals with events at this location 
    WAC 14 Jul 1938  MANTI Find all individuals with events at this location 
    _TAG Reviewed on FS 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I46914  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith | Joseph Sr., Lucy Mack
    Last Modified 28 Jan 2020 

    Father HUNGARY, King Geza ,   b. 1039, Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 25 Apr 1077, Nitra, Nitriansky, Slovakia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years) 
    Mother HUNGARY, Queen Sinadena ,   b. Abt 1050, Constantinople, İstanbul, Turkey Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1077  (Age ~ 27 years) 
    Married Aft 1073 
    Family ID F19788  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family KIEV, Princess Predislava Svyatopolkovna ,   b. 1075, Polatski Rayon, Vitebsk, Belarus, Soviet Union Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1116, Polotsk, Vitebsk, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 41 years) 
    Married 11 Aug 1104 
    Children 
     1. HUNGARY, Princess Adelaida ,   b. Abt 1105, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 15 Sep 1140  (Age ~ 35 years)
    +2. HUNGARY, King Bela Masodik Tak ,   b. 1108, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 13 Feb 1141, Székesfehérvár, Fejér, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 33 years)
     3. HUNGARY, Hedvige ,   b. Aft 1108, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 9 Nov 1137, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age < 27 years)
     4. HUNGARY, Princess Erzsebet ,   b. Abt 1128, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 3 Oct 1155, Poland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 27 years)
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F19563  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - Abt 1075 - Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsWAC - 14 Jul 1938 - Manti Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    AMBROSE SHURTZ
    Blinding of Prince Álmos and young Prince Béla
    Blinding of Prince Álmos and young Prince Béla by the order of their brother and uncle, Könyves Kálmán király, to ensure the succession of the latter's son, II. István.
    Reconciliation of Könyves Kálmán Király (King Colomon I the Book-Lover) and his brother, Prince Álmos, Duke of Croatia.
    Reconciliation of Könyves Kálmán Király (King Colomon I the Book-Lover) and his brother, Prince Álmos, Duke of Croatia.
    Reconciliation of Könyves Kálmán Király (King Colomon I the Book-Lover) and his brother, Prince Álmos, Duke of Croatia.
    Blinding of Prince Álmos and young Prince Béla
    Blinding of Prince Álmos and young Prince Béla
    Blinding of Prince Álmos and young Prince Béla by the order of their brother and uncle, Könyves Kálmán király, to ensure the succession of the latter's son, II. István.

  • Notes 
    • Almos and his infant son, Bela, were blinded by King Koloman (reigned 1095-1116) to secure the throne for Koloman's son, Stephen II (reigned 1116-31). [Koloman is nephew and successor of King Ladislaus I.]

      BIO: Duke of Croatia, abt 1089; Duke of Hungary, 1102. He was created king of Croatia, 1090, by St. Ladislas, King of Hungary, who then merged Croatia with Hungary.

      ** from http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#BelaIIA, as of 11/24/2014
      ÁLMOS ([1068]-Constantinople [1 Sep] 1129, bur Constantinople, transferred 1137 back to Hungary). After his uncle King László I conquered Pannonian Croatia in 1091, he created a special Croatian banovina between the Drava River and Gvozd Mountains, which was ruled by Álmos but recaptured by Peter King of Croatia in 1095[625]. His uncle designated Álmos as his successor, but Álmos's older brother Kálmán seized the throne in 1095 when King László died[626]. The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Colomannus et frater eius Almus" succeeded after the death of "Ladislaus rex" in 1097, "Colomannus rex" being crowned and "frater eius Almus" receiving "diadema" in 1098[627]. Álmos rebelled against his brother, declaring himself king of Hungary 1102-1109, but received little support. He was blinded, together with his son, on the orders of his brother King Kálmán and fled to Constantinople[628]. The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Almus dux et Bela filius eius" were blinded in 1117[629]. The necrology of Admunt records the death "Kal Sep" of "Almus dux"[630]. The Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmæ records that "Almum" was reburied in Hungary in 1137[631]. His body was returned to Hungary during a period of thaw in Hungarian/Byzantine relations[632].

      m (21 Aug 1104) PREDSLAVA Sviatopolkovna of Kiev, daughter of SVIATOPOLK II MIKHAIL Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife ---. The Primary Chronicle names Predslava daughter of Svyatopolk when recording that she was taken to Hungary 21 Aug 1104 to marry the king's son[633]. Baumgarten names her husband as Álmos but only cites one secondary source in support[634].

      Prince Álmos & his wife had three children:
      a) ADELHEID ([1105/07]-15 Sep 1140). m ([1123]) SOBĚSLAV UDALRICH of Bohemia, son of VRATISLAV II Duke of the Bohemians & his third wife Swiętoslawa [Svatana] of Poland ([1075]-14 Feb 1140). He succeeded in 1125 as SOBĚSLAV I UDALRICH Duke of the Bohemians.
      b) BÉLA ([1109]-13 Feb 1141). He succeeded in 1131 as BÉLA II "Vak/the Blind" King of Hungary.
      c) HEDVIG . m (1132) as his second wife, ADALBERT Markgraf of Austria, son of LEOPOLD III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria [Babenberg] & his [first wife --- von Perg] (-9 Nov [1138], bur Klosterneuburg).
      d) [MARIA (-after 1190). m (1132) KONRAD of Moravia, son of LUPOLD of Bohemia Markgraf of Moravia at Znaim & his wife Ida [Uda] von Babenberg (-after 1161). Markgraf of Moravia at Znaim 1146. Markgraf of Moravia 1146-1147. Duke of Moravia 1160.]

      ** from Wikipedia listing for Álmos, Duke of Croatia, as of 11/24/2014
      Álmos (Slovak, Croatian: Almoš; c. 1070 – 1 September 1127) was a Hungarian prince, the son of King Géza I of Hungary and brother of King Coloman. He held several governmental posts in the Kingdom of Hungary.

      Life
      Early life
      Álmos was the younger of the two sons surviving infancy of the future King Géza I.[1][2] His mother seems to have been his father's first wife, Sophia, because Géza's Byzantine second wife—whose baptismal name is unknown—returned to her homeland after her husband's death.[1] Both Álmos and his elder brother, Coloman were born around 1070, according to the historians Gyula Kristó and Márta Font.[1][3]

      Géza I who ascended the throne in 1074 died on 25 April 1077.[4] He was succeeded by his brother, Ladislaus I, because Coloman and Álmos were still minors.[5] The new king decided that Coloman should be prepared for a career in the Church.[3] The king's decision was unusual, because Coloman was elder than his brother, Álmos.[3]

      Between 1084 and 1091 Álmos was the duke of Slavonia; between 1091 and 1095 he was named duke of Croatia.[6][7] According to the Illuminated Chronicle both Coloman and Álmos accompanied their uncle on a military campaign against Bohemia in the spring of 1095.[8][9] Before reaching the border of his kingdom, Ladislaus I "was overcome by a grave infirmity"[10] and decided to appoint Álmos as his heir.[9][11] However, Coloman did not want to respect his uncle's decision and fled to Poland.[12][13]

      Conflicts with Coloman
      Coloman returned after King Ladislaus had died to claim his rights.[13] According to the Illuminated Chronicle, it was his uncle who had invited him back from Poland.[14] The same source adds that Álmos "in the true simplicity of his heart honoured his brother, Coloman, and yielded to him the crown of the kingdom",[10] which suggests that Coloman ascended the throne without bloodshed.[12] On the other hand, he was only crowned king in early 1096, implying that the two brothers had been fighting for the crown before they reached an agreement.[13][15] Coloman was crowned in Székesfehérvár by Archbishop Seraphin of Esztergom.[12] According to the Illuminated Chronicle, at the same time he "granted the dukedom with full rights"[16] to Álmos.[17] This report shows that Álmos only acknowledged his brother's rule in exchange for receiving the one-time ducatus or duchy of their father and grandfather, which encompassed one-third of the kingdom.[17][18]

      After Coloman's victories over the marauding crusaders in 1096, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, whom Ladislaus I had supported against Pope Urban II in his last years, wrote a letter to Duke Álmos.[19] He stated that Coloman had "neglected" his "interests because of his own necessities"[20] and asked Álmos to intervene on his behalf at Coloman.[19] However, the king—a former bishop—did not continue his predecessor's foreign policy and joined the pope's camp.[21][22] Historian Gyula Kristó writes that the fact that his brother, Álmos had for years had a close relationship with Emperor Henry may also have influenced Coloman's decision.[22]

      Coloman invaded Croatia and participated himself in the campaign in 1097.[23][15] Taking advantage of Coloman's absence, Álmos began to conspire against the king and mustered his armies.[24] Coloman returned from Croatia and marched towards his brother's duchy with his troops in 1098.[24] The two armies encountered at Tiszavárkony, only the river Tisza separated them.[25] However, the commanders of the two troops started negotiations and decided not to fight against each other, compelling Coloman and Álmos to make a peace.[25][26]

      [Coloman] and his army marched to [Tiszavárkony] against [Álmos], and [Álmos] drew near to [Tiszavárkony] from the opposite direction, and between them was the river [Tisza]. But loyal Hungarians sought to bring about a truce, in order that they could talk with each other, and they said: "Why do we fight? If they defeat us in battle, we shall die; and if they escape, they will flee: in times past our fathers fought against each other and brothers against brothers, and they died. Nor do we see any ground for fighting. Let those two fight if fighting pleases them; and whichever of them shall win, let us take as lord." Having taken this decision, the chief men dispersed. When Grak told [Coloman] of their decision and Ilia informed [Álmos], they kept the peace, though it was not by their own will.
      —The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle[27]

      Final confrontation
      Álmos and Béla are blinded
      The conflict was renewed a few years later between the two brothers, when Coloman had his four-year-old son, Stephen, crowned in 1105, which resulted in the open rebellion of Álmos.[28][29] The duke left Hungary and sought the assistance of Emperor Henry IV against the king.[30] However, he realized that the emperor, who was facing a rebellion of his own son, could not help him.[30] Álmos returned to Hungary in 1106, but soon fled to his brother-in-law, Boleslaw III of Poland.[28][25] With Polish assistance, he took the fortress of Abaújvár in Hungary.[31] As a result Coloman had a meeting with Boleslaw III and the two monarchs "vowed perpetual friendship and brotherhood".[31][32][33] Without the Polish monarch's support Álmos was forced to yield to Coloman.[31]

      Coloman had Álmos seized
      King Coloman decided to take advantage of the absence of Álmos—who had made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land—and seized his duchy in 1107 or 1108.[31] Although Álmos was allowed to keep his own private property, the annexation of his duchy ensured the integrity of Coloman's kingdom.[32] Having returned from the Holy Land, Álmos decided to set up a monastery at Dömös.[32] On the occasion of its consecration, where Coloman was also present, Álmos was—falsely, according to the Illuminated Chronicle—accused of an assassination attempt on the monarch.[32] Coloman decided to have his brother arrested, but "the most reverend bishops and other well-disposed dignitaries" intervened on Álmos's behalf and "thus reconciliation was solemnly sworn"[34] between the king and his brother.[32]

      Álmos left for Passau.[31] Upon his request, Henry V of Germany invaded Hungary and laid siege to Pressburg (Bratislava, Slovakia) in September 1108.[35][31] At the same time, Duke Svatopluk of Bohemia, who also supported Álmos, made an incursion into the regions north of the Danube.[35] However, Coloman's ally, Boleslaw III invaded Bohemia, forcing the Czech duke to withdraw.[31][36] Although the emperor's attempt to take Pressburg was also a total failure, he could persuade Coloman to forgive his rebellious brother, who thus return to Hungary.[37]

      Coloman discovered that his brother, Álmos was again conspiring to seize the throne.[38][39] Having lost his patience, Coloman had Álmos and Álmos's young son, Béla, blinded in order to secure a peaceful succession for his own son.[38] On the same occasion, many of his brother's partisans were likewise mutilated.[40] After this Álmos went on to live in seclusion at the monastery of Dömös. Coloman died in 1116. His son, Stephen was crowned king in Székesfehérvár in the month of his father's death.[41] His peaceful succession proves that the safety measures Coloman had implemented to prevent Álmos from aspiring the throne were effective. [42][43]

      Exile
      According to the Illuminated Chronicle, the blind Álmos, "fearing death at the hands of King Stephen",[44] fled to the Byzantine Empire.[45][46] Many of his partisans followed him and Emperor John II Komnenos settled them in a town in Macedonia.[47] The Byzantine John Kinnamos confirms that the emperor "regarded" Álmos "favorably and received him with kindness".[48] He adds that king Stephen II "sent his envoys to the emperor and demanded that" Álmos "be expelled from"[49] the Byzantine Empire, but his request was rejected.[47][50] The sources do not specify the date of Álmos's flee, but it seems to have occurred in about 1125.[47] Historian Ferenc Makk writes that Álmos was forced to flee from Hungary, because he had taken advantage of Stephen's failures in Volhynia and Dalmatia and conspired against Stephen.[46] Álmos died in exile on 1 September 1127.[51]

      His son Béla the Blind would succeed as king of Hungary in 1131. The duke's remains were returned to Hungary in 1137.

      Family
      On August 21, 1104 Álmos married Predslava and had children:
      Adelaide, (b. c. 1105/07–15 September 1140)
      Béla II of Hungary
      Hedwig (aka. Sophia), married 1132 to Duke Adalbert of Austria (1107–1137/38)

      References
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 125.
      Font 2001, p. 12.
      Font 2001, p. 13.
      Bartl et al. Segeš, p. 27.
      Kontler 1999, p. 61.
      http://www.thepeerage.com/p11409.htm#i114082
      http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=hWtyfB-ghPAC&pg=PT161&dq=%C3%A1lmos+herceg&as_brr=3&hl=hu#v=onepage&q=%C3%A1lmos%20herceg&f=false
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 129.
      Font 2001, p. 15.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 140.101), p. 130.
      Engel 2001, p. 34.
      Font 2001, p. 16.
      Makk 1989, p. 11.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 131.
      Stephenson 2000, p. 197.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 142.102), p. 131.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 133.
      Font 2001, p. 20.
      Font 2001, p. 21.
      The letters of Henry IV: Henry thanks Duke Almus for his support and promises him a reward, p. 171.
      Font 2001, pp. 21-22.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 136.
      Magaš 2007, p. 51.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 137.
      Font 2001, p. 22.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 138.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 144.102-103), p. 131.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 143.
      Font 2001, p. 79.
      Makk 1989, p. 14.
      Makk 1989, p. 15.
      Font 2001, p. 23.
      The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles (ch. 2.29.), p. 173.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 148.105), p. 132.
      Bartl et al. Segeš, p. 28.
      Manteuffel 1982, p. 108.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 146.
      Engel 2001, p. 35.
      Font 2001, p. 82.
      Makk 1989, pp. 16-17.
      Makk 1989, p. 18.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 151.
      Font 2001, p. 83.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 157.112), p. 135.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 156-157.
      Makk 1989, p. 23.
      Makk 1989, p. 22.
      Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus by John Kinnamos (1.4), p. 17.
      Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus by John Kinnamos (1.4), pp. 17–18.
      Fine 1991, p. 234.
      Makk 1989, p. 24.

      Sources
      Primary sources
      Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus by John Kinnamos (Translated by Charles M. Brand) (1976). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04080-6.
      The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles (Translated and annotated by Paul W. Knoll and Frank Schaer with a preface by Thomas N. Bisson) (2003). CEU Press. ISBN 963-9241-40-7.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle: Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum (Edited by Dezső Dercsényi) (1970). Corvina, Taplinger Publishing. ISBN 0-8008-4015-1.
      "The letters of Henry IV: Henry thanks Duke Almus for his support and promises him a reward" (2000). In Imperial Lives & Letters of the Eleventh Century (Translated by Theodor E. Mommsen and Karl F. Morrison, with a historical introduction and new suggested readings by Karl F. Morrison, edited by Robert L. Benson). Columbia University Press. pp. 52–100. ISBN 978-0-231-12121-7.

      Secondary sources
      Bartl, Július; Čičaj, Viliam; Kohútova, Mária; Letz, Róbert; Segeš, Vladimír; Škvarna, Dušan (2002). Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Slovenské Pedegogické Nakladatel'stvo. ISBN 0-86516-444-4.
      Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-061-3.
      Fine, John V. A (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth century. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
      Font, Márta (2001). Koloman the Learned, King of Hungary (Supervised by Gyula Kristó, Translated by Monika Miklán). Márta Font (supported by the Publication Commission of the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Pécs). ISBN 963-482-521-4.
      Kontler, László (1999). Millennium in Central Europe: A History of Hungary. Atlantisz Publishing House. ISBN 963-9165-37-9.
      Kristó, Gyula; Makk, Ferenc (1996). Az Árpád-ház uralkodói [=Rulers of the House of Árpád] (in Hungarian). I.P.C. Könyvek. ISBN 963-7930-97-3.
      Makk, Ferenc (1989). The Árpáds and the Comneni: Political Relations between Hungary and Byzantium in the 12th century (Translated by György Novák). Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-5268-X.
      Magaš, Branka (2007). Croatia Through History. SAQI. ISBN 978-0-86356-775-9.
      Manteuffel, Tadeusz (1982). The Formation of the Polish State: The Period of Ducal Rule, 963–1194 (Translated and with an Introduction by Andrew Gorski). Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1682-4.
      Stephenson, Paul (2000). Byzantium's Balkan Frontier: A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900–1204. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02756-4.

      Translated from Wikipedia.org at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81lmos_(duke)


      Spouse
      Predslava of Kiev

      Issue
      Adelaide, Duchess of Bohemia
      Béla II, King of Hungary
      Hedwig, Margravine of Austria

      House
      House of Árpád

      Father
      Géza I of Hungary

      Mother
      Sophia

      Born
      c. 1070
      Kingdom of Hungary

      Died
      1 September 1127 (aged 56–57)
      Constantinople, Byzantine Empir


      Álmos (Slovak, Croatian: Almoš; c. 1070 – 1 September 1127) was a Hungarian prince, the son of King Géza I of Hungary and brother of King Coloman. He held several governmental posts in the Kingdom of Hungary.

      Early life[edit]

      Álmos was the younger of the two sons surviving infancy of the future King Géza I.[1][2] His mother seems to have been his father's first wife, Sophia, because Géza's Byzantine second wife—whose baptismal name is unknown—returned to her homeland after her husband's death.[1] Both Álmos and his elder brother, Coloman were born around 1070, according to the historians Gyula Kristó and Márta Font.[1][3]

      Géza I who ascended the throne in 1074 died on 25 April 1077.[4] He was succeeded by his brother, Ladislaus I, because Coloman and Álmos were still minors.[5] The new king decided that Coloman should be prepared for a career in the Church.[3] The king's decision was unusual, because Coloman was elder than his brother, Álmos.[3]

      Between 1084 and 1091 Álmos was the duke of Slavonia; between 1091 and 1095 he was named duke of Croatia.[6] According to the Illuminated Chronicle both Coloman and Álmos accompanied their uncle on a military campaign against Bohemia in the spring of 1095.[7][8] Before reaching the border of his kingdom, Ladislaus I "was overcome by a grave infirmity"[9] and decided to appoint Álmos as his heir.[8][10] However, Coloman did not want to respect his uncle's decision and fled to Poland.[11][12]

      Conflicts with Coloman[edit]

      Coloman returned after King Ladislaus had died to claim his rights.[12] According to the Illuminated Chronicle, it was his uncle who had invited him back from Poland.[13] The same source adds that Álmos "in the true simplicity of his heart honoured his brother, Coloman, and yielded to him the crown of the kingdom",[9] which suggests that Coloman ascended the throne without bloodshed.[11] On the other hand, he was only crowned king in early 1096, implying that the two brothers had been fighting for the crown before they reached an agreement.[12][14] Coloman was crowned in Székesfehérvár by Archbishop Seraphin of Esztergom.[11] According to the Illuminated Chronicle, at the same time he "granted the dukedom with full rights"[15] to Álmos.[16] This report shows that Álmos only acknowledged his brother's rule in exchange for receiving the one-time ducatus or duchy of their father and grandfather, which encompassed one-third of the kingdom.[16][17]

      After Coloman's victories over the marauding crusaders in 1096, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, whom Ladislaus I had supported against Pope Urban II in his last years, wrote a letter to Duke Álmos.[18] He stated that Coloman had "neglected" his "interests because of his own necessities"[19] and asked Álmos to intervene on his behalf at Coloman.[18] However, the king—a former bishop—did not continue his predecessor's foreign policy and joined the pope's camp.[20][21] Historian Gyula Kristó writes that the fact that his brother, Álmos had for years had a close relationship with Emperor Henry may also have influenced Coloman's decision.[21]

      Coloman invaded Croatia and participated himself in the campaign in 1097.[14] Taking advantage of Coloman's absence, Álmos began to conspire against the king and mustered his armies.[22] Coloman returned from Croatia and marched towards his brother's duchy with his troops in 1098.[22] The two armies encountered at Tiszavárkony, only the river Tisza separated them.[23] However, the commanders of the two troops started negotiations and decided not to fight against each other, compelling Coloman and Álmos to make a peace.[23][24]


      [Coloman] and his army marched to [Tiszavárkony] against [Álmos], and [Álmos] drew near to [Tiszavárkony] from the opposite direction, and between them was the river [Tisza]. But loyal Hungarians sought to bring about a truce, in order that they could talk with each other, and they said: "Why do we fight? If they defeat us in battle, we shall die; and if they escape, they will flee: in times past our fathers fought against each other and brothers against brothers, and they died. Nor do we see any ground for fighting. Let those two fight if fighting pleases them; and whichever of them shall win, let us take as lord." Having taken this decision, the chief men dispersed. When Grak told [Coloman] of their decision and Ilia informed [Álmos], they kept the peace, though it was not by their own will.

      —The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle[25]

      Final confrontation
      The conflict was renewed a few years later between the two brothers, when Coloman had his four-year-old son, Stephen, crowned in 1105, which resulted in the open rebellion of Álmos.[26][27] The duke left Hungary and sought the assistance of Emperor Henry IV against the king.[28] However, he realized that the emperor, who was facing a rebellion of his own son, could not help him.[28] Álmos returned to Hungary in 1106, but soon fled to his brother-in-law, Boleslaw III of Poland.[26][23] With Polish assistance, he took the fortress of Abaújvár in Hungary.[29] As a result Coloman had a meeting with Boleslaw III and the two monarchs "vowed perpetual friendship and brotherhood".[29][30][31] Without the Polish monarch's support Álmos was forced to yield to Coloman.[29]

      King Coloman decided to take advantage of the absence of Álmos—who had made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land—and seized his duchy in 1107 or 1108.[29] Although Álmos was allowed to keep his own private property, the annexation of his duchy ensured the integrity of Coloman's kingdom.[30] Having returned from the Holy Land, Álmos decided to set up a monastery at Dömös.[30] On the occasion of its consecration, where Coloman was also present, Álmos was—falsely, according to the Illuminated Chronicle—accused of an assassination attempt on the monarch.[30] Coloman decided to have his brother arrested, but "the most reverend bishops and other well-disposed dignitaries" intervened on Álmos's behalf and "thus reconciliation was solemnly sworn"[32] between the king and his brother.[30]

      Álmos left for Passau.[29] Upon his request, Henry V of Germany invaded Hungary and laid siege to Pressburg (Bratislava, Slovakia) in September 1108.[33][29] At the same time, Duke Svatopluk of Bohemia, who also supported Álmos, made an incursion into the regions north of the Danube.[33] However, Coloman's ally, Boleslaw III invaded Bohemia, forcing the Czech duke to withdraw.[29][34] Although the emperor's attempt to take Pressburg was also a total failure, he could persuade Coloman to forgive his rebellious brother, who thus return to Hungary.[35]

      Coloman discovered that his brother, Álmos was again conspiring to seize the throne.[36][37] Having lost his patience, Coloman had Álmos and Álmos's young son, Béla, blinded in order to secure a peaceful succession for his own son.[36] On the same occasion, many of his brother's partisans were likewise mutilated.[38] After this Álmos went on to live in seclusion at the monastery of Dömös. Coloman died in 1116. His son, Stephen was crowned king in Székesfehérvár in the month of his father's death.[39] His peaceful succession proves that the safety measures Coloman had implemented to prevent Álmos from aspiring the throne were effective. [40][41]

      Exile[edit]

      According to the Illuminated Chronicle, the blind Álmos, "fearing death at the hands of King Stephen",[42] fled to the Byzantine Empire.[43][44] Many of his partisans followed him and Emperor John II Komnenos settled them in a town in Macedonia.[45] The Byzantine John Kinnamos confirms that the emperor "regarded" Álmos "favorably and received him with kindness".[46] He adds that king Stephen II "sent his envoys to the emperor and demanded that" Álmos "be expelled from"[47] the Byzantine Empire, but his request was rejected.[45][48] The sources do not specify the date of Álmos's flee, but it seems to have occurred in about 1125.[45] Historian Ferenc Makk writes that Álmos was forced to flee from Hungary, because he had taken advantage of Stephen's failures in Volhynia and Dalmatia and conspired against Stephen.[44] Álmos died in exile on 1 September 1127.[49]

      His son Béla the Blind would succeed as king of Hungary in 1131. The duke's remains were returned to Hungary in 1137.

      Family
      On August 21, 1104 Álmos married Predslava of Kiev, and had the following children:
      Adelaide, (c. 1107 – d. after 1140), married Sobieslav I of Bohemia in 1123.
      Béla II, King of Hungary (r. 1131–1141).
      Hedwig, or Sophia (1107–1138), married Duke Adalbert of Austria in 1132.

      =====================
      References[edit]

      1.^ Jump up to: a b c Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 125.
      2.Jump up ^ Font 2001, p. 12.
      3.^ Jump up to: a b c Font 2001, p. 13.
      4.Jump up ^ Bartl 2002, p. 27.
      5.Jump up ^ Kontler 1999, p. 61.
      6.Jump up ^ István Kapitánffy (2003). Hungarobyzantina: Bizánc és a görögség középkori magyarországi forrásokban. Typotex Kft. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-963-9326-67-5.
      7.Jump up ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 129.
      8.^ Jump up to: a b Font 2001, p. 15.
      9.^ Jump up to: a b The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 140.101), p. 130.
      10.Jump up ^ Engel 2001, p. 34.
      11.^ Jump up to: a b c Font 2001, p. 16.
      12.^ Jump up to: a b c Makk 1989, p. 11.
      13.Jump up ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 131.
      14.^ Jump up to: a b Stephenson 2000, p. 197.
      15.Jump up ^ The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 142.102), p. 131.
      16.^ Jump up to: a b Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 133.
      17.Jump up ^ Font 2001, p. 20.
      18.^ Jump up to: a b Font 2001, p. 21.
      19.Jump up ^ The letters of Henry IV: Henry thanks Duke Almus for his support and promises him a reward, p. 171.
      20.Jump up ^ Font 2001, pp. 21-22.
      21.^ Jump up to: a b Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 136.
      22.^ Jump up to: a b Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 137.
      23.^ Jump up to: a b c Font 2001, p. 22.
      24.Jump up ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 138.
      25.Jump up ^ The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 144.102-103), p. 131.
      26.^ Jump up to: a b Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 143.
      27.Jump up ^ Font 2001, p. 79.
      28.^ Jump up to: a b Makk 1989, p. 14.
      29.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Makk 1989, p. 15.
      30.^ Jump up to: a b c d e Font 2001, p. 23.
      31.Jump up ^ The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles (ch. 2.29.), p. 173.
      32.Jump up ^ The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 148.105), p. 132.
      33.^ Jump up to: a b Bartl 2002, p. 28.
      34.Jump up ^ Manteuffel 1982, p. 108.
      35.Jump up ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 146.
      36.^ Jump up to: a b Engel 2001, p. 35.
      37.Jump up ^ Font 2001, p. 82.
      38.Jump up ^ Makk 1989, pp. 16-17.
      39.Jump up ^ Makk 1989, p. 18.
      40.Jump up ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 151.
      41.Jump up ^ Font 2001, p. 83.
      42.Jump up ^ The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 157.112), p. 135.
      43.Jump up ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 156-157.
      44.^ Jump up to: a b Makk 1989, p. 23.
      45.^ Jump up to: a b c Makk 1989, p. 22.
      46.Jump up ^ Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus by John Kinnamos (1.4), p. 17.
      47.Jump up ^ Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus by John Kinnamos (1.4), pp. 17–18.
      48.Jump up ^ Fine 1991, p. 234.
      49.Jump up ^ Makk 1989, p. 24.
      50.Jump up ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. Appendices 1-2.
      51.Jump up ^ Wiszewski 2010, pp. 29-30, 60, 376.

      Primary sources[edit]

      Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus by John Kinnamos (Translated by Charles M. Brand) (1976). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04080-6.
      The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles (Translated and annotated by Paul W. Knoll and Frank Schaer with a preface by Thomas N. Bisson) (2003). CEU Press. ISBN 963-9241-40-7.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle: Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum (Edited by Dezső Dercsényi) (1970). Corvina, Taplinger Publishing. ISBN 0-8008-4015-1.
      "The letters of Henry IV: Henry thanks Duke Almus for his support and promises him a reward" (2000). In Imperial Lives & Letters of the Eleventh Century (Translated by Theodor E. Mommsen and Karl F. Morrison, with a historical introduction and new suggested readings by Karl F. Morrison, edited by Robert L. Benson). Columbia University Press. pp. 52–100. ISBN 978-0-231-12121-7.

      §Secondary sources[edit]

      Bartl, Július (January 2002). Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. ISBN 978-0-86516-444-4.
      Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-061-3.
      Fine, John V. A (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth century. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
      Font, Márta (2001). Koloman the Learned, King of Hungary (Supervised by Gyula Kristó, Translated by Monika Miklán). Márta Font (supported by the Publication Commission of the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Pécs). ISBN 963-482-521-4.
      Kontler, László (1999). Millennium in Central Europe: A History of Hungary. Atlantisz Publishing House. ISBN 963-9165-37-9.
      Kristó, Gyula; Makk, Ferenc (1996). Az Árpád-ház uralkodói [=Rulers of the House of Árpád] (in Hungarian). I.P.C. Könyvek. ISBN 963-7930-97-3.
      Makk, Ferenc (1989). The Árpáds and the Comneni: Political Relations between Hungary and Byzantium in the 12th century (Translated by György Novák). Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-5268-X.
      Manteuffel, Tadeusz (1982). The Formation of the Polish State: The Period of Ducal Rule, 963–1194 (Translated and with an Introduction by Andrew Gorski). Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1682-4.
      Stephenson, Paul (2000). Byzantium's Balkan Frontier: A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900–1204. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02756-4.