EmmaHaleSmith
"I desire the Spirit of God to know and understand myself,
that I might be able to overcome whatever of tradition or
nature that would not tend to my exaltation in the eternal
worlds. I desire a fruitful, active mind, that I may be able to comprehend the designs of God, when revealed through His servants without doubting."
First Name:  Last Name: 
Maiden Married
[Advanced Search]  [Surnames]

Donate Now
CAPET, Philippe Augustus II

CAPET, Philippe Augustus II

Male 1165 - 1223  (57 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

 Set As Default Person    

Personal Information    |    Media    |    Notes    |    All    |    PDF

  • Name CAPET, Philippe Augustus 
    Suffix II 
    Born 21 Aug 1165  Gonesse, Val-d'Oise, Ile-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    _TAG Request Submitted for Permission 
    _TAG Temple 
    Buried Jul 1223  St-Denis, Seine-Inférieure, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Died 14 Jul 1223  Mantes, Yvelines, Ile-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I47018  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith | Joseph Sr., Lucy Mack
    Last Modified 14 Jan 2020 

    Father FRANCE, King Louis VIII ,   b. 1119, Rheims, Marne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 18 Sep 1180, Paris, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 61 years) 
    Mother CHAMPAGNE, Countess Alix Adele ,   b. 11 Jun 1140, Blois, Loir-et-Cher, Centre-Val de Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Jun 1206, Isle, Aube, Champagne-Ardenne, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 65 years) 
    Married 13 Nov 1160 
    Family ID F19392  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 HAINAULT, Queen Isabelle de ,   b. 23 Apr 1170, Valenciennes, Comté de Flandre, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 15 Mar 1190, Paris, Île-de-France, France (Due to complications in childbirth) Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 19 years) 
    Married Pas-de-Calais, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. CHATILLION, Maud de ,   b. Abt 1130, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. DECEASED
    +2. FRANCE, King Louis VIII ,   b. 5 Sep 1187, Palais Royal, Paris, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 8 Nov 1226, Montpensier, Puy-de-Dôme, Auvergne, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 39 years)
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F19819  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 DENMARK, Ingeburge  
    Married 14 Jul 1193 
    Divorced Yes, date unknown 
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F19822  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 MERANIE, Agnes de  
    Married Jun 1196 
    Divorced Yes, date unknown 
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F19820  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos
    AMBROSE SHURTZ
    dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
    As a young man
    https://sg30p0.familysearch.org/service/records/storage/das-mem/patron/v2/TH-904-61650-1669-13/dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
    https://sg30p0.familysearch.org/service/records/storage/das-mem/patron/v2/TH-904-61650-1669-13/dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
    Phillip Capet  I - King of France.
    Phillip Capet I - King of France.
    Phillip I Capet - King of France.

  • Notes 
    • Philip II, called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was a King of France from the House of Capet who reigned from 1180 to 1223. Philip's predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself king of France. The son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adèle of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné "God-given" because he was the first son of Louis VII, born late in his father's life.[1] Philip was given the nickname "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France so remarkably.

      After a twelve-year struggle with the Plantagenet dynasty in the Anglo-French War of 1202–14, Philip broke up the large Angevin Empire presided over by the crown of England and defeated a coalition of his rivals (German, Flemish and English) at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214. This victory would have a lasting impact on western European politics: the authority of the French king became unchallenged, while the English King John was forced by his barons to sign the Magna Carta and deal with a rebellion against him aided by Philip, the First Barons' War.

      The military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals and knights to help carry it out.

      Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority, granting privileges and liberties to the emergent bourgeoisie. He built a great wall around Paris ("the Wall of Philip II Augustus"), re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.
      Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165.[2] King Louis VII intended to make his son Philip co-ruler with him as soon as possible, in accordance with the traditions of the House of Capet, but these plans were delayed when Philip, at the age of thirteen, was separated from his companions during a royal hunt and became lost in the Forest of Compiègne. He spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold, hunger and fatigue, he was eventually discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner, but his exposure to the elements meant he soon contracted a dangerously high fever.[3] His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philip's recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered. However, on his way back to Paris, he suffered a stroke.

      In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Rheims on 1 November 1179 by the Archbishop Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. He was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all real power was transferred to Philip, as his father slowly descended into senility.[3] The great nobles were discontented with Philip's advantageous marriage, while his mother and four uncles, all of whom exercised enormous influence over Louis, were extremely unhappy with his attainment of the throne, which caused a diminution of their power.[4] Eventually, Louis died on 18 September 1180.
      While the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished slightly under Louis VII. In April 1182, partially to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne and confiscated their goods. Philip's eldest son Louis was born on 5 September in 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died. The main source of funding for Philip's army was from the royal demesne. In times of conflict, he could immediately call up 250 knights, 250 horse sergeants, 100 mounted crossbowmen, 133 crossbowmen on foot, 2,000 foot sergeants, and 300 mercenaries.[5] Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights, 9,000 sergeants, 6,000 urban militiamen, and thousands of foot sergeants.[6] Using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men. Within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones.
      Wars with his vassals[edit]
      In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wife's dowry and the Count was unwilling to give up. Finally the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin.[8] Notified of Philip's impending approach with 2,000 knights, he turned around and headed back to Flanders.[9] Philip chased him, and the two armies confronted each other near Amiens. By this stage, Philip had managed to counter the ambitions of the count by breaking his alliances with Henry I, Duke of Brabant, and Philip of Heinsberg, Archbishop of Cologne. This, together with an uncertain outcome were he to engage the French in battle, forced the Count to conclude a peace.[8] In July 1185, the Treaty of Boves left the disputed territory partitioned, with Amiénois, Artois, and numerous other places passing to the king, and the remainder, with the county of Vermandois proper, left provisionally to the Count of Flanders.[10] It was during this time that Philip II was nicknamed "Augustus" by the monk Rigord for augmenting French lands.[11]

      Meanwhile, in 1184, Stephen I of Sancerre and his Brabançon mercenaries ravaged the Orléanais. Philip defeated him with the aid of the Confrères de la Paix.
      War with Henry II[edit]
      Philip also began to wage war with King Henry II of England, who was also Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine in France. The death of Henry's eldest son, Henry the Young King, in June 1183, began a dispute over the dower of Philip's widowed sister Margaret. Philip insisted that the dower should be returned to France as the marriage did not produce any children, as per the betrothal agreement.[12] The two kings would hold conferences at the foot of an elm tree near Gisors, which was so positioned that it would overshadow each monarch's territory, but to no avail. Philip pushed the case further when King Béla III of Hungary asked for the widow's hand in marriage, and thus her dowry had to be returned, to which Henry finally agreed.
      The death in 1186 of Henry's fourth son, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, began a new round of disputes, as Henry insisted that he retain the guardianship of the duchy for his unborn grandson Arthur I, Duke of Brittany.[12] Philip, as Henry's liege lord, objected, stating that he should be the rightful guardian until the birth of the child. Philip then raised the issue of his other sister, Alys, Countess of the Vexin, and her delayed betrothal to Henry's son Richard I of England, nicknamed Richard the Lionheart.

      With these grievances, two years of combat followed (1186–1188), but the situation remained unchanged. Philip initially allied with Henry's young sons Richard the Lionheart and John Lackland, who were in rebellion against their father. Philip II launched an attack on Berry in the summer of 1187, but in June made a truce with Henry, which left Issoudun in his hands and also granted him Fréteval in Vendômois.[10] Though the truce was for two years, Philip found grounds for resuming hostilities in the summer of 1188. He skilfully exploited the estrangement between Henry and Richard, and Richard did homage to him voluntarily at Bonsmoulins in November 1188.[10]

      In 1189, Richard openly joined forces with Philip to drive Henry into abject submission. They chased him from Le Mans to Saumur, losing Tours in the process,[12] before forcing him to acknowledge Richard as his heir. Finally, by the Treaty of Azay-le-Rideau (4 July 1189), Henry was forced to renew his own homage, confirm the cession of Issoudun to Philip (along with Graçay), and renounce his claim to suzerainty over Auvergne.[10] Henry died two days later. His death, and the news of the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin, diverted attention from the Franco-English war.

      The Angevin Kings of England (the line of rulers to which Henry II belonged), were Philip's most powerful and dangerous vassals as Dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine and Counts of Anjou. Philip made it his life's work to destroy Angevin power in France. One of his most effective tools was to befriend all of Henry's sons and use them to foment rebellion against their father. He maintained friendships with Henry the Young King and Geoffrey II until their deaths. Indeed, at the funeral of Geoffrey, he was so overcome with grief that he had to be forcibly restrained from casting himself into the grave. His friendships with Henry's younger sons Richard and John were discarded once each of them acceded to the English throne.
      Third Crusade
      Philip travelled to the Holy Land to participate in the Third Crusade of 1189–1192 with King Richard I of England and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. His army left Vézelay on 1 July 1190. At first, the French and English crusaders travelled together, but the armies split at Lyon, after Richard decided to go by sea, whereas Philip took the overland route through the Alps to Genoa. The French and English armies were reunited in Messina, where they wintered together. On 30 March 1191, the French set sail for the Holy Land and Philip arrived on 20 May. He then marched to Acre, which was already under siege by a lesser contingent of crusaders, and he started to construct siege equipment before Richard arrived on 8 June. By the time Acre surrendered on 12 July, Philip was severely ill with dysentery, which reduced his zeal.

      War with Henry II

      Philip also began to wage war with Henry II of England, who was also Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine in France. The death of Henry's eldest son, Henry the Young King, in June 1183 began a dispute over the dower of Philip's widowed sister Margaret. Philip insisted that the dower should be returned to France as the marriage did not produce any children, as per the betrothal agreement.[12] The two kings would hold conferences at the foot of an elm tree near Gisors, which was so positioned that it would overshadow each monarch's territory, but to no avail. Philip pushed the case further when King Béla III of Hungary asked for the widow's hand in marriage, and thus her dowry had to be returned, to which Henry finally agreed.
      Remains of the wall of Philippe Auguste built around Paris before he went to the Crusades. Today in rue des Jardins-Saint-Paul, Paris

      The death of Henry's fourth son, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, in 1186 began a new round of disputes, as Henry insisted that he retain the guardianship of the duchy for his unborn grandson Arthur I, Duke of Brittany.[12] Philip, as Henry's liege lord, objected, stating that he should be the rightful guardian until the birth of the child. Philip then raised the issue of his other sister, Alys, Countess of the Vexin, and her delayed betrothal to Richard the Lionheart.

      With these grievances, two years of combat (1186–1188) followed, but the situation remained unchanged. Philip initially allied with Henry's young sons, Richard the Lionheart and John Lackland, who were in rebellion against their father. Philip II launched an attack on Berry in the summer of 1187 but then in June made a truce with Henry, which left Issoudun in his hands and also granted him Fréteval, in Vendômois.[10] Though the truce was for two years, Philip found grounds for resuming hostilities in the summer of 1188. He skilfully exploited the estrangement between Henry and Richard, and Richard did homage to him voluntarily at Bonmoulins in November 1188.[10]

      Then in 1189 Richard openly joined forces with Philip to drive Henry into abject submission. They chased him from Le Mans to Saumur, losing Tours in the process,[12] before forcing him to acknowledge Richard as his heir. Finally, by the Treaty of Azay-le-Rideau (4 July 1189), Henry was forced to renew his own homage, to confirm the cession of Issoudun, with Graçay also, to Philip, and to renounce his claim to suzerainty over Auvergne.[10] Henry died two days later. His death, and the news of the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin, diverted attention from the Franco-English war.

      Philip befriended all of Henry's sons and used them to foment rebellion against their father, but he turned against both Richard and John after their respective accessions to the throne. The Angevin Kings of England, as Dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou, were his most powerful and dangerous vassals. Philip made it his life's work to destroy Angevin power in France. He maintained friendships with Henry the Young King and Geoffrey II until their deaths. Indeed, at the funeral of Geoffrey, he was so overcome with grief that he had to be forcibly restrained from casting himself into the grave.

      Conflict with King John 1200–1206
      Main articles: Normandy campaigns of 1200–1204 and Anglo-French War (1202–1214)

      In May 1200, Philip signed the Treaty of Le Goulet with Richard's successor King John of England. The treaty was meant to bring peace to Normandy by settling the issue of its much-reduced boundaries and the terms of John's vassalage for it, Anjou, Maine, and Touraine. John agreed to heavy terms, including the abandonment of all the English possessions in Berry and 20,000 marks of silver, while Philip in turn recognised John as king, formally abandoning Arthur I of Brittany, whom he had thitherto supported, and he recognised John's suzerainty over the Duchy of Brittany. To seal the treaty, a marriage between Blanche of Castile, John's niece, and Louis the Lion, Philip's son, was contracted.
      Map of Philip's conquests

      This did not stop the war, however, as John's mismanagement of Aquitaine led to the province erupting in rebellion later in 1200, which Philip secretly encouraged.[21] To disguise his ambitions, he invited John to a conference at Andely and then entertained him at Paris, and both times he committed to complying with the Treaty.[21] In 1202, disaffected patrons petitioned the French king to summon John to answer their charges in his capacity as John's feudal lord in France, and, when the English king refused to appear, Philip again took up the claims of Arthur, to whom he betrothed his six-year-old daughter, Marie. John crossed over into Normandy and his forces soon captured Arthur, and in 1203, the young man disappeared, with most people believing that John had had Arthur murdered. The outcry over Arthur's fate saw an increase in local opposition to John, which Philip used to his advantage.[21] He took the offensive and, apart from a five-month siege of Andely, he swept all before him. On the fall of Andely, John fled to England, and by the end of 1204, most of Normandy and the Angevin lands, including much of Aquitaine had fallen into Philip's hands.[21]

      What Philip had gained through victory in war, he then sought to confirm by legal means. Philip, again acting as John's liege lord over his French lands, summoned him to appear before the Court of the Twelve Peers of France, to answer for the murder of Arthur of Brittany.[22] John requested safe conduct, but Philip only agreed to allow him to come in peace, while providing for his return only if it were allowed after the judgment of his peers. Not willing to risk his life on such a guarantee, John refused to appear, so Philip summarily dispossessed him of his French lands.[22] Pushed by his barons, John eventually launched an invasion in 1206, disembarking with his army at La Rochelle during one of Philip's absences, but the campaign was a disaster.[22] After backing out of a conference that he himself had demanded, John eventually bargained at Thouars for a two-year truce, the price of which was his agreement to the chief provisions of the judgment of the Court of Peers, including the loss of his patrimony.[22]
      Alliances against Philip 1208–1213

      Philip II, called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1180 to 1223, and the first to be called by that title. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks but from 1190 onward Philip styled himself king of France. The son of Louis VII and of his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed "God-given" because he was the first son of Louis VII and born late in his father's life.[1]

      After a twelve years struggle with the Plantagenet dynasty, Philip broke up the great Angevin Empire and defeated a coalition of his rivals (German, Flemish and English) at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214. This victory would have a lasting impact on western European politics: the authority of the French king became unchallenged, while the English king was forced by his barons to sign the Magna Carta and faced a rebellion in which Philip intervened.

      Philip did not directly participate in the Albigensian Crusade, but he allowed his vassals and knights to carry it out, preparing the subsequent expansion of France southward.

      Philip was nicknamed "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having remarkably extended the royal demesne, the domains ruled directly by the kings of France, as opposed to the territories ruled indirectly by vassals of the king.

      He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority, granting privileges and liberties to the emergent Bourgeoisie. He built a great wall around Paris, reorganized the government and brought financial stability to the country.

      Philip Augustus transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He died in 1223 and was succeeded by his son, Louis VIII. Knowing his own declining health would inevitably decrease his political strength, he was the first Capetian king not to have his eldest son anointed to act as co-ruler during his lifetime; instead his son acted as sole king.