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HUNGARY, King Geza

HUNGARY, King Geza

Male 1039 - 1077  (38 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

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  • Name HUNGARY, Geza 
    Prefix King 
    Born 1039  Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Buried Apr 1077 
    Died 25 Apr 1077  Nitra, Nitriansky, Slovakia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    WAC 4 Nov 1938  MANTI Find all individuals with events at this location 
    _TAG Reviewed on FS 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I47424  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith | Joseph Sr., Lucy Mack
    Last Modified 19 Feb 2020 

    Father HUNGARY, King Béla Árpád ,   b. Jul 1017, Komárom-Esztergom, Ungarn, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Sep 1063, Dömös, Esztergom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 46 years) 
    Mother POLAND, Princess Ryksa Miciszlava ,   b. 1015, Kraków, Kraków, Poland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Jan 1108, Turov, Belarus Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 93 years) 
    Married 1033 
    Family ID F19632  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family HUNGARY, Queen Sinadena ,   b. Abt 1050, Constantinople, İstanbul, Turkey Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1077  (Age ~ 27 years) 
    Married Aft 1073 
     1. HUNGARY, King Kalman ,   b. 1074, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 3 Feb 1116, Székesfehérvár, Fejér, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 42 years)
    +2. HUNGARY, Duke Almos ,   b. Abt 1075, Esztergom, Komárom, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1 Sep 1127, Istanbul, Fatih, İstanbul, Turkey Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 52 years)
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F19788  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsWAC - 4 Nov 1938 - Manti Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    I. Géza király
    I. Géza király Géza I, King of Hungary
    I. Géza király
    I. Géza király
    I. Géza király
    Géza I, King of Hungary
    Lithograph by Josef Kriehuber after a drawing by Moritz von Schwind. About 1800.
    Lithograph by Josef Kriehuber after a drawing by Moritz von Schwind. About 1800.

  • Notes 
    • BIOGRAPHY: proclaimed King of Hungary, 1074, by popular demand, but he never ruled.

      ** from http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#BelaIIA, as of 11/24/2014
      GÉZA, son of BÉLA I King of Hungary & his wife [Ryksa] of Poland ([in Poland] [1044/45]-25 Apr 1077, bur Vac). The Gesta Hungarorum names "Geichæ et Ladislai" as sons of "fratris sui Belæ" when recording that King András obtained their agreement to the future succession of his son Salomon[537]. The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska names "Geyzam et Ladislaum" as the two older sons of "Bela" and his wife "rex Polonie filiam", adding that they were both born in Poland[538]. He was sent as a hostage to the imperial court in [1062/63][539], at which time he must have been unmarried in line with the custom of not sending married men as hostages to foreign courts. He sought refuge in Poland after his father's death in 1063, but later returned to Hungary, made peace with King Salamon, and was appointed Duke between March and Gran[540]. This must have occurred in [1064/67] if it is correct that Géza's second marriage took place before 1067, as suggested below. The Chronicon Posoniense records disputes in 1071 between "Salomon rex" and "duce magno Geyza Ungarorum"[541]. Relations deteriorated and Géza, possibly with at least financial support from Emperor Mikhael VII[542], defeated King Salamon at Mogyorod, forcing the king to withdraw to the western border and from there to Germany. Géza succeeded his cousin in 1074 as GÉZA I King of Hungary. The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Salomon" was deposed in 1074 and "Magnus rex" crowned in 1075[543]. "Magnus qui et Geysa supremus Hungarorium Dux postea…rex consecratus, Belæ regis filius" founded the monastery of St Benedict, Gron, in the presence of "Ladislao Duce germano meo…Iula Comite Palatino", by charter dated 1075[544]. The Gesta Hungarorum records that Géza succeeded King Salomon but died after a reign of three years and was buried at "Waciæ [Vác]"[545]. The Chronicon Varadiense records the death "VIII Kal Mai" in 1077 of "Geysa primogenitus Belæ regis" and his burial "in ecclesia Vaciensi quam ipse construxit"[546].

      m firstly ([1062]) [SOPHIE de Looz], daughter of [EMMO Comte de Looz] & his wife [Suanehildis of Holland] ([1044/46]-[1065]). She is named as the first wife of King Géza in Europäische Stammtafeln[547]. The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. Kerbl, in his analysis concerning Géza I's [second] Byzantine marriage, does not mention this supposed first marriage[548]. If it is correct, the marriage presumably took place while Géza was a hostage at the imperial court, which Kerbl dates to [1062/63][549]. This is consistent with Sophie having been born in [1044/46]. The Vita Arnulfi names "Arnulfum comitem de Lo et Sophiam ducissam de Hungaria…et ducissam de Hui" as the children of Emmo Comte de Looz, adding that Sophie was the mother of "regem de Hungaria"[550]. This manuscript, written at Oudenbourg abbey, is dated to 1220[551]. This is late to be reliable. In addition, the document represents the ancestors of Comte Emmo in a way which is inconsistent with earlier primary sources. As the county of Looz was among the temporal possessions of the Bishop of Liège and, as such, part of the duchy of Lower Lotharingia under the suzerainty of the German emperor, it would not be improbable for a daughter of the comte de Looz to have been staying at the imperial court and for her marriage to have been arranged with another noble visitor. The Vita Andreæ, first abbot of Averboden, in the Chronicle written by Nicolas Hogeland Abbot of Middelburg, records that "Sophia de Los, Hungariæ regina, comitis Arnoldi Lossensis soror" sent letters to her brother after hearing that he intended to found Averboden abbey[552]. This report is clearly anachronistic as the abbey in question was founded in 1135, when Sophie de Looz could not possibly have been queen of Hungary. The question remains whether Sophie´s supposed marriage to King Géza I is based on speculation, suggested by an as yet unidentified secondary source which was trying to make sense of the passages in the Vita Arnulfi and the Vita Andreæ by identifying the most likely Hungarian king who could have been her husband. Until further sources come to light, it has been decided to show Sophie de Looz in square brackets. Whatever the truth of the matter, the chronology of the births of King Géza´s older children suggests that their mother could not have been the Byzantine wife whom he married in [1066/75].

      m secondly ([1066/75]) --- Synadene, daughter of THEODULOS Synadenos & his wife --- Botaneiatissa. Skylitzes records that Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates married "sororis suæ filiam Synadenen, Theodulo Synadeno genitam" ("τήν αεψιάν αυτου ο βασιλευς") the daughter of Theodoulos Synadenos ("την Συναδηνην, θυγατέρα ουσαν Θεοδουλου του Συναδηνου") to "crali Ungariæ" ("τω κράλη Ουγγρίας είς γυναικα") and that she returned to Byzantium after her husband died[553]. The passage does not name the Hungarian king in question. Kerbl says that Horvát suggested that her husband was Lambert, son of Béla I King of Hungary[554], although it is unclear how Lambert could have been described as "krali" of Hungary as no other record has been identified indicating that he ever reigned as king. Kerbl also cites Wertner as the first source which proposed that her husband was Géza of Hungary[555]. The narrative of Skylitzes Continuatus ends during the reign of Emperor Nikephoros (who reigned from 1078 until his forced abdication in 1081). This suggests that the husband of --- Synadene must have died before that date, which supports his identification as King Géza. However, it is not impossible that the text was written some years later, and that her return to Constantinople was mentioned because it was of recent date at the time of writing. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that her husband was King László I (who appears to be the only other realistic candidate) as his marriage to Adelheid von Rheinfelden appears to be certain as discussed above. The remaining potential difficulty is with the date of the marriage. Wertner suggested that the marriage took place in [Oct 1073/Oct 1074][556]. Nikephoros Botaneiates (later Emperor Nikephoros III) was Byzantine military commander along the Danube, adjacent to Hungarian territory, from 1064 to before 1067 when he was reassigned as governor of Antioch[557]. Kerbl therefore assesses this as the more likely period during which the marriage took place[558]. However, if it is correct, as stated by Skylitzes, that --- Synadene returned to Byzantium after her husband's death, it is probable that she had no surviving children. If she had had children, it is reasonable to expect that she would have remained with them to protect their interests, especially as the chronology suggests that King Géza's son Kálmán could not in any case have been her son and would therefore have had a superior claim to the throne than any half-brothers. If this is correct, all of King Géza's children must have been born from his first marriage, which would date his second marriage to --- Synadene to the early 1070s at the earliest.

      King Géza & his first wife had two children:
      1. daughter ([1064]-). m ---, from Hungary.
      2. KÁLMÁN ([1065]-3 Mar 1116, bur Székesfehérvár). m firstly (1097) [FELICIA] of Sicily, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his second wife Eremburge de Mortain [Normandy] ([1078]-[1102]). m secondly (1104, repudiated 1113) IEVFEMIA Vladimirovna of Kiev, daughter of VLADIMIR II Vsevolodich "Monomach" Prince of Pereiaslavl [later Grand Prince of Kiev] & his second wife --- (-4 Apr 1139)

      King Géza & his [first/second] wife had [two] children:
      3. ÁLMOS ([1068]-Constantinople [1 Sep] 1129, bur Constantinople, transferred 1137 back to Hungary). m (21 Aug 1104) PREDSLAVA Sviatopolkovna of Kiev, daughter of SVIATOPOLK II MIKHAIL Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife ---.
      4. [daughter. m ---, of the Miskolc family.

      ** from Wikipedia listing for Géza I of Hungary, as of 11/24/2014
      Géza I (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɡeːzɒ]; Hungarian: I. Géza; c. 1040 – 25 April 1077) was King of Hungary from 1074 until his death. He was the eldest son of King Béla I. His baptismal name was Magnus. When his father died in 1063, Géza's cousin Solomon acquired the crown with German assistance, forcing Géza to leave Hungary. Géza returned with Polish reinforcements and signed a treaty with Solomon in early 1064. In the treaty, Géza and his brother, Ladislaus acknowledged the rule of Solomon, who granted them their father's former duchy, which encompassed one-third of the Kingdom of Hungary.

      Géza closely cooperated with Solomon, but their relationship became tense from 1071. The king invaded the duchy in February 1074 and defeated Géza in a battle. However, Géza was victorious at the decisive battle of Mogyoród on 14 March 1074. He soon acquired the throne, although Solomon maintained his rule in the regions of Moson and Pressburg (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) for years. Géza initiated peace negotiations with his dethroned cousin in the last months of his life. Géza's sons were minors when he died and he was succeeded by his brother Ladislaus.

      Early years (before 1064)
      Géza was the eldest son of the future King Béla I of Hungary and his wife Richeza or Adelhaid, a daughter of King Mieszko II of Poland.[1] The Illuminated Chronicle narrates that Géza and his brother Ladislaus were born in Poland, where their father who had been banished from Hungary settled in the 1030s.[1] Géza was born in about 1040.[1] According to the historians Gyula Kristó and Ferenc Makk, he was named after his grandfather's uncle Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians.[1] His baptismal name was Magnus.[2][3]

      11th-century Kingdom of Hungary
      In about 1048, Géza's father returned to Hungary and received one third of the kingdom with the title of duke from his brother, King Andrew I.[4][5][6] Géza seems to have arrived in Hungary with his father.[6] The king, who had not fathered a legitimate son, declared Béla as his heir.[7] According to the traditional principle of seniority, Béla preserved his claim to succeed his brother even after Andrew's wife Anastasia of Kiev gave birth to Solomon in 1053.[4][5] However, the king had his son crowned in 1057 or 1058.[1][8] The Illuminated Chronicle narrates that the child Solomon "was anointed king with the consent of Duke Bela and his sons Geysa and Ladislaus",[9] which is the first reference to a public act by Géza.[1] However, according to the contemporaneous text Annales Altahenses, Géza was absent from the meeting where Judith—the sister of the German monarch Henry IV—was engaged to the child Solomon in 1058.[10][11]

      Géza accompanied his father, who left for Poland to seek assistance against King Andrew.[12] They returned with Polish reinforcements in 1060.[12][13] Géza was one of his father's most influential advisors. Lampert of Hersfeld wrote that Géza persuaded his father to set free Count William of Weimar, one of the commanders of the German troops fighting on Andrew's side, who had been captured in a battle.[12][14]

      The king died during the civil war; his partisans took Solomon to the Holy Roman Empire and Géza's father Béla was crowned king on 6 December 1060.[4][15] Although Géza remained his father's principal advisor, King Béla did not grant his former duchy to his son.[12][16] According to the Annales Altahenses, Béla even offered Géza as hostage to the Germans when he was informed that the German court decided, in August 1063, to invade Hungary to restore Solomon.[17][18][19] However, the Germans refused Béla's offer and he died on 11 September 1063, some days after the imperial troops entered Hungary.[8][18][19]

      Following his father's death, Géza offered to accept Solomon's rule if he received his father's former duchy.[19] This offer was refused, which forced him and his two brothers—Ladislaus and Lampert—to leave Hungary for Poland.[16][19] King Bolesław II of Poland provided them with reinforcements and they returned after the German troops withdrewn from Hungary.[19][20] The brothers wanted to avoid a new civil war and made an agreement with King Solomon.[19][21] According to the treaty, which was signed in Győr on 20 January 1064, Géza and his brothers accepted Solomon's rule and the king granted them their father's duchy.[3][22] The king and his cousins celebrated Easter together in the cathedral of Pécs, where Duke Géza ceremoniously put a crown on Solomon's head.[23]

      Being a newcomer and not yet established in his kingdom, King [Solomon] was afraid that [Géza] would perhaps attack him with a Polish army, and he therefore retired for a time with his forces and took up a safe station in the strongly fortified castle of [Moson]. The bishops and other religious men strove most earnestly to bring about a peaceful settlement between them. Especially bishop Desiderius softened Duke [Géza]'s spirit with his gentle admonitions and sweet pleadings that he should peaceably restore the kingdom to [Solomon], even though he was the younger, and should himself assume the dukedom which his father had held before him. [Géza] listened to his words of wise persuasion and laid aside his ill feeling. At [Győr], on the feast day of SS Fabian and Sebastian the martyrs, King [Solomon] and Duke [Géza] made peace with each other before the Hungarian people.
      —The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle[24]

      Duke in Hungary (1064–1074)
      According to Ján Steinhübel and other Slovak historians, Géza only retained the administration of the region of Nyitra (present-day Nitra, Slovakia) and gave the eastern territories of their father's duchy, which were centered around Bihar (present-day Biharia, Romania), to his brother, Ladislaus.[3][21] The Hungarian historian, Gyula Kristó likewise says that this division of Béla's one-time duchy is "probable".[23] The historians Gyula Kristó and Ferenc Makk write that Géza seems to have married a German countess, named Sophia around this time.[2][25] Géza had the right to coinage in his duchy.[3] The silver half-denars minted for him bore the inscriptions DUX MAGNUS ("Duke Magnus") and PANONAI ("Kingdom of Hungary").[26]

      Solomon and Count Vid, Géza and the Byzantine envoys
      Géza closely cooperated with the king between 1064 and 1071.[8] For instance, they jointly routed an invading army which had plundered the eastern territories of the kingdom at Kerlés (present-day Chiraleş, Romania) in 1068.[8][25] The identification of the invaders is uncertain: the Annales Posonienses writes of Pechenegs, the Illuminated Chronicle and other 14th- and 15th-century Hungarian chronicles refer to Cumans, and a Russian chronicle identifies them as Cumans and Vlachs.[27] Modern historians have concluded that they were Pechenegs.[27]

      Géza's and Solomon's relationship only began to worsen during the siege of the Byzantine fortress of Belgrade in 1071.[8] Its commander preferred to surrender to Géza instead of the king and the Byzantine envoys who arrived in the Hungarian camp after the fall of Belgrade only negotiated with Géza.[28] The division of the booty also gave rise to a new conflict between Solomon and Géza.[8] Although Géza accompanied the king on a new campaign against the Byzantine Empire in 1072, but his brother, Ladislaus stayed behind with half of the troops of their duchy.[29][30]

      The conflict between the king and his cousins was sharpened by Solomon's main advisor, Count Vid who wanted to acquire the dukes' domains for himself.[25][31] However, Solomon and Géza, who were convinced that they needed foreign reinforcements before attacking the other party, concluded a truce which was to last from 11 November 1073 to 24 April 1075.[30][31] Géza sent his brothers to Poland and Rus' to seek assistance against Solomon.[31] At a meeting in the Szekszárd Abbey, Count Vid persuaded the king to break the truce in order to unexpectedly attack Géza who was "hunting in Igfan Forest"[32] to the east of the river Tisza.[30][31] Although the abbot of the monastery, which had been established by Géza's father, warned the duke of the king's plans, the royal army crossed the river and routed Géza's troops in the battle of Kemej on 26 February 1074.[30][31][33]

      Abbot Villermus of Szekszárd
      From the battlefield, Géza and his retinue hastened towards Vác where he came upon his brother, Ladislaus and their brother-in-law, Duke Otto I of Olomouc.[33][34] The latter, accompanied by Czech reinforcements, arrived in Hungary in order to assist Géza against Solomon.[33][34] In the ensuing battle, fought at Mogyoród on 14 March 1074, Géza "with the troops from Nitria was stationed in the centre",[35] according to the Illuminated Chronicle.[33] During the battle, Géza and Ladislaus changed their standards in order to bewilder Solomon who was planning to attack Géza.[34] Géza and his allies won a decisive victory and forced the king to flee from the battlefield and to withdraw to Moson at the western frontier of Hungary.[33][34] Géza "made" Kapuvár, Babót, Székesfehérvár and "other castles secure with garrisons of the bravest soldiers",[36] thus taking possession of almost the entire kingdom.[33]
      His reign (1074–1077)

      According to the Illuminated Chronicle, Géza accepted the throne "at the insistence of the Hungarians"[36] after Solomon had taken refuge in Moson.[28] However, he was not crowned because the royal jewels were still in the dethroned king's possession.[37] The German monarch Henry IV, who was Solomon's brother-in-law, launched an expedition against Hungary in mid-1074.[38][39] The Germans marched as far as Vác, but Géza applied scorched earth tactics and bribed German commanders, who persuaded the German monarch to retreat from Hungary.[39][40]

      Emperor Michael VII
      [Géza], hearing that the Emperor had come to Vacia, with prudent policy gave instructions to approach and win over the patriarch of Aquilegia, to whose counsels the Emperor most readily listened, and also all the [German] dukes, promising them much money if they would make the Emperor turn back. The patriarch, therefore, and the dukes, seduced by the gifts and possessed with love of gold, invented various false stories to induce the Emperor to turn back. The patriarch pretended that he had a dream whose interpretation most plainly was that the Emperor's army would be wholly destroyed by the divine vengeance unless he returned with the utmost speed. The dukes pretended likewise to be awestricken by divine warnings ...
      —The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle[41]

      The siege of Pressburg
      In early 1074, Géza had approached Pope Gregory VII to obtain international recognition of his rule.[38] However, the pope wanted to take advantage of the conflict between Solomon and Géza and attempted to persuade both of them to acknowledge the suzerainty of the Holy See.[39] Géza did not obey the pope and asked the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas for a crown.[37] The emperor sent Géza a gold and enamel diadem, which bore the legend "Géza, the faithful king of Hungary" on one of its plaques.[42][43] This "splendid work of art"[22] became the lower part of the Holy Crown of Hungary by the end of the 12th century. Géza was crowned king with this diadem in early 1075.[44] In this year he styled himself as "anointed king of the Hungarians by the grace of God" in the charter of the foundation of the Benedictine Abbey of Garamszentbenedek (present-day Hronský Beňadik, Slovakia).[45]

      Géza married married a niece of Nikephoros Botaneiates, a close advisor of Emperor Michael VII.[46] However, Solomon still controlled Moson and Pressburg; the royal troops—which were under the command of Géza's brother, Ladislaus—could not take Pressburg in 1076.[44] According to the Illuminated Chronicle, Géza considered renouncing the crown in favor of Solomon from the end of the year.[47] Géza died on 15 April 1077 and was buried in the cathedral of Vác, which he had erected in the honor of the Holy Virgin.[48][49] His brother, Ladislaus succeeded him.[21]

      [King Géza] celebrated Christmas at [Szekszárd]. ... When the Mass had been celebrated and all observances had been duly performed, the King instructed that all should leave except the bishop and the abbots. Then the King prostrated himself with tears before the Archbishop and the other ecclesiastical personages and prelates. He said that he had sinned because he had possessed himself of the kingdom of a lawfully crowned king; and he promised that he would restore the kingdom to [Solomon], and that these would be the conditions of firm peace between them: He would by lawful right hold the crown with that third part of the kingdom belonging with the duchy; the crowned [Solomon] would hold the two parts of the kingdom which he had held before. ... Then King [Géza] sent messengers to King [Solomon] with letters setting forth the terms of peace. Messengers passed to and fro, but feelings on this side and that were at variance, and so the reconciliation found no consummation. Meanwhile King [Géza] fell gravely ill, and on April 25, adorned with virtues, he went the way of all flesh. He was most devoted to God in the Catholic faith, and he was a most Christian Prince.
      —The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle[50]

      Géza married twice.[53] The family of his first wife Sophia, whom he married in the late 1060s, is unknown.[25][54] After his coronation in 1075, he married his second wife, who was the niece of the future Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros III.[46] [54]

      It is uncertain which wife bore Géza's children, but the historians Gyula Kristó and Márta Font say that Sophia was their mother.[25][55] Kristó adds that Géza fathered at least six children.[25] Although only two of them—Coloman and Álmos—are known by name, the Illuminated Chronicle states that Coloman had brothers who "died before him".[56][57] Both Coloman and Álmos were apparently born around 1070.[55]

      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 98.
      Makk 1994, p. 235.
      Steinhübel 2011, p. 27.
      Kontler 1999, p. 60.
      Engel 2001, p. 30.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 79.
      Kosztolnyik 1981, p. 74.
      Engel 2001, p. 31.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 65.92), p. 115.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 98-99.
      Makk & Thoroczkay 2006, p. 77.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 99.
      Kosztolnyik 1981, p. 76.
      Makk & Thoroczkay 2006, pp. 103-104.
      Bartl et al. 2002, p. 26.
      Steinhübel 2011, p. 26.
      Makk & Thoroczkay 2006, p. 80.
      Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 88.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 100.
      Manteuffel 1982, p. 94.
      Bartl et al. 2002, p. 27.
      Kontler 1999, p. 61.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 107.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 69-70.97), p. 117.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 101.
      Steinhübel 2011, pp. 27-28.
      Spinei 2009, p. 118.
      Kosztolnyik 1981, p. 83.
      Kosztolnyik 1981, pp. 84-85.
      Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 90.
      Kosztolnyik 1981, p. 85.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 80.114), p. 122.
      Steinhübel 2011, p. 28.
      Kosztolnyik 1981, p. 86.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 84.121), p. 124.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 87.124), p. 125.
      Engel 2001, p. 32.
      Kosztolnyik 1981, p. 88.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 102.
      Stephenson 2000, p. 188.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 90.128), p. 126.
      Treadgold 1997, p. 696.
      Stephenson 2000, pp. 188-189.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 105.
      Kosztolnyik 1981, p. 89.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 104.
      Kosztolnyik 1981, p. 90.
      Kosztolnyik 1981, p. 92.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 106.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 92.130), p. 127.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. Appendices 1-2.
      Wiszewski 2010, pp. 29-30, 60, 376.
      Kristó & Makk 1996, p. Appendix 2.
      Font 2001, p. 12.
      Font 2001, p. 13.
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 108.152), p. 133.
      Font 2001, pp. 12-13.

      Primary sources
      The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle: Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum (Edited by Dezső Dercsényi) (1970). Corvina, Taplinger Publishing. ISBN 0-8008-4015-1.

      Secondary sources
      Bartl, Július; Čičaj, Viliam; Kohútova, Mária; Letz, Róbert; Segeš, Vladimír; Škvarna, Dušan (2002). Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Slovenské Pedegogické Nakladatel'stvo. ISBN 0-86516-444-4.
      Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-061-3.
      Érszegi, Géza; Solymosi, László (1981). "Az Árpádok királysága, 1000–1301 [The Monarchy of the Árpáds, 1000–1301]". In Solymosi, László. Magyarország történeti kronológiája, I: a kezdetektől 1526-ig [=Historical Chronology of Hungary, Volume I: From the Beginning to 1526] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 79–187. ISBN 963-05-2661-1.
      Font, Márta (2001). Koloman the Learned, King of Hungary. Szegedi Középkorász Műhely. ISBN 963-482-521-4.
      Kontler, László (1999). Millennium in Central Europe: A History of Hungary. Atlantisz Publishing House. ISBN 963-9165-37-9.
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