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GERMANY, King Rudolf

GERMANY, King Rudolf

Male 1025 - 1080  (55 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

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  • Name GERMANY, Rudolf 
    Prefix King 
    Born 1025  Rheinfelden, Lorrach, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    _TAG Request Submitted for Permission 
    _TAG Temple 
    Buried Oct 1080  Merseburg Cathedral, Merseburg, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Died 15 Oct 1080  Hohenmölsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I47431  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith | Joseph Sr., Lucy Mack
    Last Modified 20 Feb 2020 

    Family SAVOY, Countess Adelaid ,   b. 1035, Schwaben, Chemnitzer, Sachsen, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1079, Baden-Württemberg, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 44 years) 
    Children 
    +1. SWABIA, Adelheid ,   b. Abt 1067, Schwaben, Chemnitz, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1092, Nitra, Nitriansky, Slovakia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 25 years)
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F20024  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos
    AMBROSE SHURTZ
    dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
    As a young man
    https://sg30p0.familysearch.org/service/records/storage/das-mem/patron/v2/TH-904-82805-487-17/dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
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    https://sg30p0.familysearch.org/service/records/storage/das-mem/patron/v2/TH-904-49932-613-5/dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
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    https://sg30p0.familysearch.org/service/records/storage/das-mem/patron/v2/TH-904-82805-1334-5/dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
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  • Notes 
    • BIOGRAPHY: Rudolf of Rheinfelden (c. 1025 – 15 October 1080) was Duke of Swabia from 1057 to 1079. Initially a follower of his brother-in-law, the Salian emperor Henry IV, his election as German anti-king in 1077 marked the outbreak of the Great Saxon Revolt and the first phase of open conflict in the Investiture Controversy between Emperor and Papacy. After a series of armed conflicts, Rudolf succumbed to his injuries after his forces defeated Henry's in the Battle on the Elster.

      Born
      c. 1025
      Died
      15 October 1080
      Hohenmölsen, Saxon Eastern March
      Buried
      Merseburg Cathedral
      Spouse(s)
      Matilda of Swabia
      Adelaide of Savoy
      Issue
      Adelaide of Rheinfelden
      Father
      Kuno of Rheinfelden

      Life

      Rudolf was the son of the Swabian count (Graf) Kuno of Rheinfelden. He was first mentioned in a 1048 deed issued by the Salian emperor Henry III as a count in the Swabian Sisgau on the High Rhine (in present-day Northwestern Switzerland), an estate then held by the Prince-Bishopric of Basel. Rudolf's family had large possessions up to Sankt Blasien Abbey in the Black Forest and down to the Aargau beyond the border with the Kingdom of Burgundy. He probably was related to King Rudolph II of Burgundy (d. 937), the Dukes of Lorraine and the Ottonian dynasty.

      Duke of Swabia

      When Duke Otto III of Swabia died without male heirs in 1057, Empress Agnes, consort of late Henry III, appointed him Swabian duke and administrator of Burgundy. Rivalling with the Zähringen count Berthold, Rudolf according to Frutolf of Michelsberg had taken advantage of the minority of Agnes' son Henry IV, elected King of the Romans, by kidnapping his sister Matilda. Rudolf demanded, and received, Matilda's hand in marriage (1059). In 1061 Berthold received the Duchy of Carinthia instead. When Matilda died in 1060, Rudolf subsequently, in 1066, married Adelaide of Savoy (d. 1079), a daughter of Count Otto of Savoy and Adelaide of Susa. When Adelaide's sister Bertha of Savoy married Henry IV in 1066, Rudolf became brother-in-law to the king twice over.

      During Agnes' regency, the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire could further strengthen their position against the Imperial authority. In the 1062 Coup of Kaiserswerth, several princes led by Archbishop Anno II of Cologne even abducted the minor king to enforce the surrender of the Imperial Regalia. When Henry came of age in 1065, he continued the policies of his father against the reluctant Saxon nobility, sparking the Saxon Rebellion in 1073. While other princes like the Carinthian duke Berthold of Zähringen or Duke Welf of Bavaria distanced themselves, Rudolf supported Henry's campaigns in Thuringia, when he was a primary force in the 1075 Battle of Langensalza against the insurgents. However, after the joint victory, Rudolf became estranged to the king and rumours occurred that he was involved in adversarial conspiracies. Empress Agnes repeatedly had to arbitrate between the parties.

      Finally when the Investiture Controversy broke out and King Henry was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII in February 1076, Duke Rudolf met with Berthold, Welf and several other princes in Trebur in order to decide on a course of action and to arrange a new election. Henry, observing the proceedings from his camp in Oppenheim on the other side of the Rhine, had to face a massive loss of support among the German nobles and realized that he had to achieve the lifting of his ban. Pope Gregory agreed to meet with the princes at Augsburg in February 1077.

      Anti-king

      Already in January, Henry hastened to see the pope on his way to the Empire from Rome. Duke Rudolf attempted to have the Alpine passes closed, nevertheless the king through wintry weather made his Walk to Canossa, where Gregory, fearing an armed attack by Henry's forces, had found refuge with Matilda of Tuscany. By doing penance, Henry managed to achieve absolution, buying time at the price of his reputation and secular authority. The rebels continued with their plans. Rudolf was elected anti-king on 15 March 1077 at the Kaiserpfalz in Forchheim, where already Louis the Child and Conrad I of Germany had been crowned. The first anti-king in the history of the Empire, he promised to respect the investiture solely according to canon law, as well as the concept of the elective monarchy. Further claims raised by the princes were rejected as simony by the attendant papal legates.

      Rudolf was supported by the Archbishops of Mainz, Salzburg and Magdeburg as well as by the Dukes of Carinthia and Bavaria, the Saxon rebel Otto of Nordheim and possibly also by Duke Magnus of Saxony. He proceeded to Mainz, where on 25 May he was crowned by Archbishop Siegfried I, but soon after was forced to flee to Saxony, when the Mainz citizens revolted. This presented a problem, since the Saxon duchy was cut off from his Swabian homelands by the king's Salian territory. Moreover, the pope avoided taking sides and adopted a waiting attitude. Rudolf was accused of greed, treason and usurpation by Henry's liensmen, while his own support crumbled.

      Later life

      crumbled.

      Later life

      Rudolf gave Swabia to his son Berthold and attempted to rectify his situation by stalking Henry's forces near Würzburg, but to little effect. Meanwhile, he was deprived of Swabia by the Hoftag diet at Ulm in May, and the king gave the duchy to Frederick of Büren, the first Hohenstaufen ruler.

      The next year Henry waged a successful campaign to Bavaria, while Pope Gregory rejected to excommunicate Rudolf. The Battle of Mellrichstadt on 7 August 1078 proved indecisive: though the opposition forces under Otto of Nordheim were victorious, the troops of Berthold and Welf were stuck in a peasants' revolt. Rudolf found it difficult to convince the Saxons to fight beyond their borders; they viewed him as a southerner and distrusted him. He was also frustrated by the apparent reluctance of the pope to recognize his cause. In order to gain and maintain supporters, he was forced to grant large parts of the crown lands, as well as those of the church, to his followers. Nevertheless, things seemed to be improving in 1080. The battle of Flarchheim (27 January 1080) went well in his favor. On 7 March, the pope excommunicated Henry again and recognized Rudolf as king.

      Emboldened, Rudolf's forces met Henry's at the White Elster river in the Battle of Elster. The battle, which took place on 14 October 1080, would have been a huge victory for the anti-royalists. However, Rudolf lost his right hand in the battle and was mortally wounded in the abdomen. He withdrew to nearby Merseburg, where he died the next day and was buried. The majority of the support for the rebellion against Henry IV soon evaporated, but the struggle continued on in effect into 1085, with a final flare up in 1088 under Rudolph's successor, the second anti-king, Herman of Luxembourg.

      Rudolph's daughter Adelaide married Ladislaus I of Hungary.

      Sources

      (in German) Robinson, Ian Stuart (2002). Bertholds und Bernolds Chroniken. Lateinisch und deutsch. Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchgesellschaft. pp. 35–277. ISBN 3-534-01428-6.




      BIO: Duke of Swabia; King of Germany

      ** from http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SWABIAN%20NOBILITY.htm#Adelheiddied1079
      RUDOLF von Rheinfelden, son of Graf KUNO & his wife --- (-killed in battle near Hohenmölsen near Merseburg 16 Oct 1080, bur Merseburg cathedral). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. He was installed as Duke of Swabia in 1057 by Agnes de Poitou, widow of Emperor Heinrich III[738]. He became rector of Burgundy, entrusted with the administration of the kingdom, in 1060[739]. He introduced the stricter monastic rules from Fruttuaria[740] into the monastery of St Blasien in 1072. He was one of the nobles opposed to his brother-in-law King Heinrich IV. He was elected RUDOLF King of Germany at Forcheim in Feb 1077 by the German nobility who were affronted by Pope Gregory VI's withdrawal of the order of excommunication against King Heinrich[741]. The Pope remained neutral, but after the king's defeat near Flarcheim on the Unstrut 27 Jan 1080, he renewed the excommunication of the king and impliedly declared support for Rudolf as anti-king by granting remission to the sins of Rudolf's supporters[742]. The Chronicon of Bernold records the death "1080 Id Oct" of "Roudolfus rex", and his burial "apud Merseburc"[743]. The necrology of St Peter im Schwarzwald records the death "XVII Kal Nov" of "Ruodolfus rex"[744]. The identification of this entry with Rudolf von Rheinfelden is rendered more probable by another entry referring to his daughter Agnes as "filia Ruodolfi regis de Arle".

      m firstly (1059) MATHILDE of Germany, daughter of Emperor HEINRICH III King of Germany & his second wife Agnès de Poitou (1045-12 May 1060). The Annales of Berthold record the marriage in 1059 of "Roudolfus Alemmanorum dux" and "Mahthildam, Heinrici regis sororem" and the death in 1060 of "Mahthilt soror regis"[745]. The Annales Sancti Blasii record the marriage in 1059 of "Roudolfus dux" and "Mahtildam regis sororem" and the death of "Mahtilt uxor Roudolfi ducis" in 1060[746].

      m secondly ([after Jun 1066]) ADELAIDE de Savoie, daughter of ODDON Comte de Chablais, Marchese di Susa & his wife Adelaida Marchese di Susa ([1052/53]-[Schloß Twiel] early 1079, bur St Blasius). The Annales of Berthold, which record the death in 1079 of "uxor…regis Roudolfi…Adelheit, filia Adelheidæ marchionissæ, soror Berhtæ reginæ uxoris Heinrici", prove that she was the daughter of Adelaida di Susa[747]. Her daughter Adelheid is named with "progenitoribus Rodolfo…rege et Adelheida…regina matertera Heinrici quarti inperatoris" in a charter dated [1079/10 Oct 1086][748]. Europäische Stammtafeln[749] shows Adelaide's birth date as "after 1052", presumably based on the likelihood that she was born after her sister Berthe as Heinrich IV King of Germany would no doubt have married the older daughter. Concerning her marriage date, it is likely that the marriage took place after the marriage of her older sister. She is named "Adalheid coniux Ruodulfi ducis" in the Annales Weissemburgenses, which records that she was accused of being unchaste, was repudiated by her husband two years later, and found asylum at the court of Pope Alexander[750]. The Annales of Berthold record that "rex…Roudolfus…uxor" was "in partes Burgundiæ a Turego divertens", suffering "iniurias" in "quodam castello suo"[751]. The wife of "Rudolfus rex de Arle" is named "Adelheidis" in a list of founders of the monastery of St Peter in Schwarzwald[752]. The Annales Sancti Blasii record the death in 1079 of "Adelheit uxor Roudolfi regis" and her burial "apud Sanctum Blasium"[753]. The Annales of Berthold record the death in 1079 of "uxor…regis Roudolfi…Adelheit, filia Adelheidæ marchionissæ, soror Berhtæ reginæ uxoris Heinrici" and her burial "ad monasterium Sancti Blasii"[754]. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[755], Adelaide married firstly Guigues Comte d'Albon. Another table in Europäische Stammtafeln[756] shows the first wife of Guigues Comte d'Albon as "Adelais (von Turin)" and their son Guigues II Comte d'Albon as co-heir of Adelaida Marchese di Susa in 1091. The basis for this alleged first marriage has not been found but it is unlikely to be correct considering Adelaide's likely birth date.

      Rudolf & his second wife had six children...

      ** from Wikipedia listing for Rudolf of Rheinfelden, as of 10/13/2014
      Rudolf of Rheinfelden (German: Rudolf von Rheinfelden) (c. 1025 – 15 October 1080) was Duke of Swabia (1057–1079) and brother-in-law of King Henry IV of Germany.

      In 1077, upon the outbreak of the Investiture Controversy, Duke Rudolf was elected alternative king or German antiking by the politically oriented anti-Henry German aristocrats, whose rebellion became known as the Great Saxon Revolt. In the struggle for supremacy in the Holy Roman Empire, he died as a result of battlefield injuries as his faction met Henry's forces and defeated them in the Battle of Elster .

      Life
      Rudolf was the son of Count (Graf) Kuno of Rheinfelden. He was first mentioned in a 1048 deed issued by the Salian emperor Henry III as a count in the Swabian Sisgau on the High Rhine (in present-day Northwestern Switzerland), an estate then held by the Prince-Bishopric of Basel. Rudolf's family had large possessions up to Sankt Blasien Abbey in the Black Forest and down to the Aargau beyond the border with the Kingdom of Burgundy. He probably was related to King Rudolph II of Burgundy (d. 937), the Dukes of Lorraine and the Ottonian dynasty.

      Duke of Swabia
      When Duke Otto III of Swabia died without male heirs in 1057, Empress Agnes, consort of late Henry III, appointed him Swabian duke and administrator of Burgundy. Rivalling with the Zähringen count Berthold, Rudolf according to Frutolf of Michelsberg had taken advantage of the minority of Agnes' son Henry IV, elected King of the Romans, by kidnapping his sister Matilda. Rudolf demanded, and received, Matilda's hand in marriage (1059). In 1061 Berthold received the Duchy of Carinthia instead. When Matilda died in 1060, Rudolf subsequently, in 1066, married Adelaide of Savoy (d. 1079), a daughter of Count Otto of Savoy and Adelaide of Susa. When Adelaide's sister Bertha of Savoy married Henry IV in 1066, Rudolf became brother-in-law to the king twice over.

      During Agnes' regency, the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire could further strengthen their position against the Imperial authority. In the 1062 Coup of Kaiserswerth, several princes led by Archbishop Anno II of Cologne even abducted the minor king to enforce the surrender of the Imperial Regalia. When Henry came of age in 1065, he continued the policies of his father against the reluctant Saxon nobility, sparking the Saxon Rebellion in 1073. While other princes like the Carinthian duke Berthold of Zähringen or Duke Welf of Bavaria distanced themselves, Rudolf supported Henry's campaigns in Thuringia, when he was a primary force in the 1075 Battle of Langensalza against the insurgents. However, after the joint victory, Rudolf became estranged to the king and rumours occurred that he was involved in adversarial conspiracies. Empress Agnes repeatedly had to arbitrate between the parties.

      Finally when the Investiture Controversy broke out and King Henry was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII in February 1076, Duke Rudolf met with Berthold, Welf and several other princes in Trebur in order to decide on a course of action and to arrange a new election. Henry, observing the proceedings from his camp in Oppenheim on the other side of the Rhine, had to face a massive loss of support among the German nobles and realized that he had to achieve the lifting of his ban. Pope Gregory agreed to meet with the princes at Augsburg in February 1077.

      Antiking
      Already in January, Henry hastened to see the pope on his way to the Empire from Rome. Duke Rudolf attempted to have the Alpine passes closed, nevertheless the king through wintry weather made his Walk to Canossa, where Gregory, fearing an armed attack by Henry's forces, had found refuge with Matilda of Tuscany. By doing penance Henry managed to achieve absolution, buying time at the price of his reputation and secular authority. The rebels continued with their plans. Rudolf was elected antiking on 15 March 1077 at the Kaiserpfalz in Forchheim, where already Louis the Child and Conrad I of Germany had been crowned. The first antiking in the history of the Empire, he promised to respect the investiture solely according to canon law as well as the concept of the elective monarchy. Further claims raised by the princes were rejected as simony by the attendant papal legates.

      Rudolf was supported by the Archbishops of Mainz, Salzburg and Magdeburg as well as by the Dukes of Carinthia and Bavaria, the Saxon rebel Otto of Nordheim and possibly also by Duke Magnus of Saxony. He proceeded to Mainz, where on 25 May he was crowned by Archbishop Siegfried I, but soon after was forced to flee to Saxony, when the Mainz citizens revolted. This presented a problem, since the Saxon duchy was cut off from his Swabian homelands by the king's Salian territory. Moreover the pope avoided to take sides and adopted a waiting attitude. Rudolf was accused of greed, treason and usurpation by Henry's liensmen, while his own support crumbled.

      Royalty
      Rudolf gave Swabia to his son Berthold and attempted to rectify his situation by stalking Henry's forces near Würzburg, but to little effect. Meanwhile, he was deprived of Swabia by the Hoftag diet at Ulm in May, and the king gave the duchy to Frederick of Büren, the first Hohenstaufen ruler.

      The next year Henry waged a successful campaign to Bavaria, while Pope Gregory rejected to excommunicate Rudolf. The Battle of Mellrichstadt on 7 August 1078 proved indecisive: though the opposition forces under Otto of Nordheim were victorious, the troops of Berthold and Welf were stuck in a peasants' revolt. Rudolf found it difficult to convince the Saxons to fight beyond their borders; they viewed him as a southerner and distrusted him. He was also frustrated by the apparent reluctance of the pope to recognize his cause. In order to gain and maintain supporters, he was forced to grant large parts of the crown lands, as well as those of the church, to his followers. Nevertheless, things seemed to be improving in 1080. The battle of Flarchheim (27 January 1080) went well in his favor. On 7 March, the pope excommunicated Henry again and recognized Rudolf as king.

      Emboldened, Rudolf's forces met Henry's at the Weisse-Elster River in the battle of Elster. The battle, which took place on 14 October 1080, would have been a huge victory for the anti-royalists. However, Rudolf lost his right hand in the battle and was mortally wounded in the abdomen. He withdrew to nearby Merseburg, where he died the next day and was buried. The majority of the support for the rebellion against Henry IV soon evaporated, but the struggle continued on in effect into 1085, with a final flare up in 1088 under Rudolph's successor, the second antiking, Herman of Luxembourg.

      Rudolph's daughter Adelaide married Ladislaus I of Hungary.