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NAVARRE, King Teobaldo I

NAVARRE, King Teobaldo I

Male 1201 - 1253  (52 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

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  • Name NAVARRE, Teobaldo 
    Prefix King 
    Suffix
    Nickname The Great 
    Born 30 May 1201  Troyes, Aube, Champagne-Ardenne, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    _TAG Request Submitted for Permission 
    _TAG Temple 
    Died 8 Jul 1253  Pamplona, Navarra, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried 14 Jul 1253  Cathedral of Pamplona, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I47619  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith | Joseph Sr., Lucy Mack
    Last Modified 2 Mar 2020 

    Father CHAMPAGNE, Count Thibault ,   b. 13 May 1179, Troyes, Aube, Champagne-Ardenne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 May 1201, Acre, Hazafon, Palestine, Israel Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 22 years) 
    Mother NAVARRE, Princess Blanche ,   b. Abt 1180, Navarra, Navarra, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 13 Mar 1229, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 49 years) 
    Married 1195 
    Family ID F20105  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family BOURBON, Queen Marguerite de ,   b. 5 May 1211, Bourbon, Allier, Auvergne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 12 Apr 1256, Brie, Ille-et-Vilaine, Bretagne, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 44 years) 
    Married 22 Sep 1232 
    Children 
     1. NAVARRE, Princess Blanca ,   b. 1233, Navarra, Navarra, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 12 Aug 1283, Hede, Bretagne, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 50 years)
     2. NAVARRE, King Teobaldo II ,   b. Abt 1237, Champaigne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Dec 1270, Trapani, Sicily, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 33 years)
    +3. NAVARRE, Enrique Henri ,   b. Abt 1244, Troyes, Aube, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 22 Jul 1274, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 30 years)
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F18943  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsDied - 8 Jul 1253 - Pamplona, Navarra, Spain Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    AMBROSE SHURTZ
    Escudo Casa Champaña & Navarra
    As a young man
    https://sg30p0.familysearch.org/service/records/storage/das-mem/patron/v2/TH-904-90068-6423-21/dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
    https://sg30p0.familysearch.org/service/records/storage/das-mem/patron/v2/TH-904-90068-6423-21/dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
    Miniature of Theobald with the arms of Navarre
    Miniature of Theobald with the arms of Navarre

  • Notes 
    • BIOGRAPHY: King of Navarre, 8 May 1234; Count of Champagne, Briey, Bar-sur-Seine, 1223. Crusader 1239/40.

      ** from http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CHAMPAGNE%20NOBILITY.htm#TeobaldoIdied1253B, as of 11/12/2014
      THIBAUT de Champagne, son of THIBAUT III Comte de Champagne & his wife Infanta doña Blanca de Navarra (Pamplona 3 May 1201-Pamplona 8 Jul 1253, bur Pamplona). Villehardouin records that the wife of Comte Thibaut "had borne him a little daughter and was about to bear a son" when her husband died[66]. He succeeded his father in 1201 as THIBAUT IV Comte de Champagne et de Brie. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "comes Campaniensis Theobaldus" joined his [maternal] uncle in Navarre in 1225[67]. He succeeded his maternal uncle in 1234 as TEOBALDO I "le Grand" King of Navarre. He answered the call of Pope Gregory IX for a Crusade in 1239, and led a French contingent which landed at Acre 1 Sep 1239. William of Tyre (Continuator) names "Tiebaut li rois de Navarre qui estoit cuens de Champaigne" among those who took part in the crusade from France which landed at Acre in 1239[68]. He marched south to attack the Egyptian outposts of Ascalon and Gaza, where they were defeated. He returned to Europe in Sep 1240[69]. The necrology of Sens cathedral records the death "Kal Mai" of "Theobaldus illustris rex Navarre et comes Campanie"[70]. The necrology of Saint-Etienne, Troyes records the death "11 Jul" of "Theobaldus rex Navarre, Campanie et Brie comes palatinus"[71]. The "Corónicas" Navarras record the death "Id Iul…apud Pampilonam" in 1253 of "Teobaldus…rex Navarre et comes palatinus Campanie atque Brie" and his burial in Pamplona[72].

      [73]Betrothed (1219) MARGARET of Scotland, daughter of WILLIAM I "the Lion" King of Scotland & his wife Ermengarde de Beaumont (1193-1259, bur Church of the Black Friars, London).

      m firstly (mid-May 1220, repudiated 1222) as her second husband, GERTRUD von Dagsburg, widow of THIBAUT I Duke of Lorraine, daughter of ALBERT II Graf von Dagsburg & his wife Gertrud von Baden ([May 1205/mid-1206]-before 19 Mar 1225). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the second marriage in 1220 of "Gertrudem comitissam de Daburc [relictam Theobaldi iuvenis dux Lotharingie]" and "iuvenis comes Theobaldus Campaniensis" and their separation two years later on grounds of consanguinity[74]. Richer records that "ducem Lotoringie Theobaldum" was married to "filiam comitis de Daxporc", that he inherited the county through her, that after her first husband died she married "comes…Campanie adhuc adolescens" who in his turn inherited the county, that she was repudiated for sterility by her second husband and married thirdly "comiti de Lignigne", and that after the couple's death soon afterwards there were no heirs to her county which (including "castra…Hernestem et Turquestem, et…opida…Albam et Saleborc") was annexed by "Metensis episcopus Iohannes" but that "frater…dicti comitis defuncti" captured "castrum Daxporc"[75]. She married thirdly (1224 before Sep) Simon von Leiningen.

      m secondly (1222) AGNES de Beaujeu, daughter of GUICHARD [IV] “le Grand” Seigneur de Beaujeu & his wife Sibylle de Hainaut [Flanders] (-11 Jul 1231, bur Clairvaux). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the second marriage of "Theobaldus comes Campaniensis" and "Agnetem sororem Humberti filiam Wichardi de Belloioco"[76]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "1231 V Id Jul" of "Agnes comitissa Campanie" and her burial "in Clarevalle in capella comitis Flandrie matris sue avunculi"[77].

      [78]Betrothed (1231) to YOLANDE de Bretagne, daughter of PIERRE Duke of Brittany & his first wife Alix de Thouars (in Brittany end 1218-château de Bouteville 10 Oct 1272, bur Villeneuve-les-Nantes, église abbatiale de Notre Dame).

      m thirdly (contract Mar 1232, 22 Sep 1232) MARGUERITE de Bourbon, daughter of ARCHAMBAUD [VIII] "le Grand" Seigneur de Bourbon [Dampierre] & his first wife Guigone de Forez (-Provins, Brie 12 Apr 1256, bur Clairval). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage of "comes Campaniensis Theobaldus" and "Margaretam filiam Erchenbaldi de Borbona"[79]. The contract of marriage between “Theobaldus Campanie et Brie comes palatinus” and “Archambaldus dominus Borbonii…Margarita filia” is dated Mar 1232[80]. She was regent of Champagne and Navarre 1253-1256 during the minority of her son. “Marguerite…royne de Navarre, de Champaigne et de Brye conteste palatine” settled a dispute between “les nobles barons Jehan conte de Bourgoigne et signour de Salins…et Thiebaut conte de Barz” by charter dated 3 Nov 1254[81]. The necrology of Saint-Etienne, Troyes records the death "29 Mar" of "Margarita regina Navarre"[82]. The necrology of the Chapelle Saint-Blaise, Provins records the death on 29 Mar of "Margarita regina"[83]. The "Corónicas" Navarras record the death "II Id Apr…apud Privignum" in 1256 of "Margarita…regina Navarre, commitissa Canpanie atque Brie" and her burial in "apud Claram vallem"[84].

      Comte Thibaut IV & his second wife had one child:
      1. BLANCHE de Champagne (before 19 Jan 1225-Château de Hédé, Ille-et-Vilaine 11 Aug 1283, bur Hennebont, Morbihan, Abbaye cistercienne de Notre Dame de la Joie). Betrothed (19 Jan 1225) to OTTO de Bourgogne, son of OTTO I Duke of Merano, Comte Palatin de Bourgogne [Andechs] & his first wife Beatrix de Bourgogne-Comté (-Burg Niesten 19 Jun 1248, bur Langheim). He succeeded his father in 1234 as Comte Palatin de Bourgogne, Duke of Merano. m (contract Château-Thierry, Aisne 16 Jan 1236) JEAN de Bretagne, son of PIERRE I "Mauclerc" Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond & his first wife Alix de Thouars Dss of Brittany (1217-Château de l'Isle, Férel, Morbihan 8 Oct 1286, bur Prières, église abbatiale de Notre Dame).

      King Teobaldo I & his third wife had six children:
      2. ELEONORE de Champagne ([1233]-young).
      3. THIBAUT de Champagne, Infante don TEOBALDO de Navarra (1239-Trapani, Sicily 4 Dec 1270, bur Provins, église des Cordeliers). He succeeded his father in 1253 as THIBAUT V Comte de Champagne et de Brie, TEOBALDO II "el Joven" King of Navarre. m (Melun, Seine-et-Marne 6 Apr 1258) ISABELLE de France, daughter of LOUIS IX King of France & his wife Marguerite de Provence (2 or 18 Mar 1242-Hyères near Marseille 27 Apr 1271, bur Provins, église des Cordeliers). Mistress (1): doña MARQUESA Gil de Rada, daughter of ---.
      4. MARGUERITE de Champagne, Infanta doña MARGARETA de Navarra ([1240]-3 Oct 1307, bur église des Précheresses, Nancy). m (contract 6 Jun 1249, 10 Jul 1255) FERRY III Duke of Lorraine, son of MATHIEU II Duke of Lorraine & his wife Catherine van Limburg (early 1240-31 Dec 1302, bur Beaupré Abbey).
      5. PIERRE de Champagne, Infante don PEDRO de Navarra (-22 May 1265). Señor de Muruzábal.
      6. BEATRICE de Champagne, Infanta doña BEATRIZ de Navarra ([1242]-Château de Villaines-en-Duesmois, Côtes d'Or 1295 after Jul). m (contract Nov 1258) as his second wife, HUGUES IV Duke of Burgundy, son of EUDES III Duke of Burgundy & his second wife Alix Dame de Vergy (9 Mar 1213-château de VillaInés-en-Duesmois, Côtes d'Or 27 or 30 Oct 1272, bur Abbaye de Cîteaux).
      7. HENRI de Champagne, Infante don ENRIQUE de Navarra (-Pamplona 22 Jul 1274, bur Pamplona). He succeeded his brother in 1270 as HENRI III Comte de Champagne et de Brie, ENRIQUE I King of Navarre. m (Melun, Seine-et-Marne 1269) as her first husband, BLANCHE d'Artois, daughter of ROBERT I Comte d’Artois [Capet] & his wife Mathilde [Mahaut] de Brabant (1248-Paris 2 May 1302). Mistress (1): --- Lacarra, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her name and her relationship with King Teobaldo has not been identified.

      King Teobaldo I had four illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:
      8. doña MARGARITA [Inés] de Navarra . m (before 15 Jul 1243) as his second wife, don ÁLVARO Pérez de Azagra Señor de Albarracín, son of don PEDRO Fernández de Azagra & his wife --- .
      9. don GUILLERMO de Navarra ([1225 or after]-30 Dec before 1267).
      10. doña ELIDA de Navarra (-[1242]). Maybe m (contract Mar 1238[100]) as his first wife, don ÁLVARO Pérez de Azagra Señor de Albarracín, son of don PEDRO Fernández de Azagra & his wife ---.
      11. doña BERENGUELA de Navarra . Prioress of San Pedro de Ribas.


      The precise relationship between the following person and Thibaut IV Comte de Champagne has not yet been ascertained:
      1. --- (-killed Orléans 1236).

      ** from The Ill Encl of Medieval Civ (A. Grabois) p 671--
      Thibaut IV (1201-53) Count of Champagne and king of Navarre (1234-53). Thibaut was one of the most colourful personalities of 13th-century France. Feudal lord, perfect knight, adventurer and lyrical poet, he helped Queen
      Blanche of Castile, towards whom he felt deep affection, during her regency in 1228-32. He also dedicated poetry to her. At the same time Thibaut attempted to oppose the royal administration in Champagne, where he held a brilliant court. Having inherited the kingdom of Navarre in 1234, he assumed the royal title but was not particularly concerned with the realm, which his officers administered. In 1239 Thibaut led a Crusade in Palestine and conquered the territory between Ascalon and Jerusalem for the realm of Acre.

      ** from Wikpedia listing for Theobald I of Navarre
      Theobald I (French: Thibaut, Spanish: Teobaldo) (30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), called the Troubadour and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234. He was famous as a trouvère and Crusader, and was the first Frenchman to rule Navarre.

      Rule of Champagne
      Regency of Champagne
      Born in Troyes, he was the son of Theobald III of Champagne and Blanche of Navarre, the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre. His father died less than a week before he was born, and Blanche ruled the county as regent until Theobald turned twenty-one in 1222. He was a notable trouvère, and many of his songs have survived, including some with music.

      The first half of Theobald's life was plagued by a number of difficulties. His uncle, Count Henry II, had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Theobald's father died. Further, Theobald's right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, Count of Ramerupt, and one of the more powerful nobles of Champagne.

      The conflict with Erard and Philippa broke into open warfare in 1215 as the Champagne War of Succession, and was not resolved until after Theobald came of age in 1222. At that time he bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Some years later, in 1234, he had to spend still more to buy off Philippa's elder sister Alice, Queen of Cyprus. The settlement of 1222 did not end Theobald's problems, for in the following years he antagonized Louis VIII.

      Conflict with the crown
      Unfortunately, Theobald IV's rule was initially marked by a series of difficulties.

      Theobald IV came into conflict with Louis VIII of France (1223–26) over the restrictive policies the new king tried to enforce on Jews in France. In his Etablissement sur les Juifs of November 8, 1223, Louis VIII declared that interest on Jews' debts should no longer hold good (though at the same time it also ordered that the capital should be repaid to the Jews in three years), that the debts due the Jews should be inscribed and placed under the control of their lords. The lords then collected the debts for the Jews, doubtless receiving a commission. Twenty-six barons accepted Louis VIII's new measures, but Theobald IV did not, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed their safety in return for extra income through taxation. Theobald IV and his mother had relied on this extra income during the Succession War of his minority. Champagne's capital at Troyes was where Rashi had lived a century before, and Champagne continued to have a prosperous Jewish population. Theobald IV's refusal to enact Louis VIII's new antagonistic policies towards the Jews enlarged a growing feud between the two men.

      During the siege of Avignon in 1226, part of the Albigensian Crusade, due to his disagreements with the king, Theobald IV performed only the minimum service of 40 days and then went home. Unfortunately, Louis VIII died of dysentery soon after he left, leading some to accuse Theobald IV of treachery. At the death of Louis VIII, Theobald's political situation was difficult: he had abandoned the king in his campaigns, there were rumors that he had poisoned him, and he was barred from the coronation of Louis IX (his mother Blanche went instead). At the beginning of the regency of Blanche of Castile, he abandoned a conspiracy against the French king, which also included Hugh de Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Pierre Mauclerc, Duke of Brittany,[1] and cemented a strong relation with the regent.

      Strong rumors began to spread that Theobald IV was having an affair with Louis VIII's widow, the regent Blanche of Castile, for whom he composed a poetic homage. Queen Blanche and Theobald IV's father Theobald III were both grandchildren of Eleanor of Aquitaine. The first chronicler to report the rumors about a love affair between Theobald and Blanche was Roger of Wendover. Wendover claims that Theobald, "tormented by passion" for the queen, tried to poison King Louis VIII at the siege of Avignon. Matthew Paris adds a story that the French nobles goaded the young King Louis IX to challenge Theobald to a duel to avenge his father's death, but that Blanche put a stop to the duel. Theobald IV was becoming increasingly influential at court, and the other great counts of France were becoming resentful. It is possible that the rumors of an affair with the queen were indeed unfounded, and merely fabricated by other barons jealous of his position at court. In general, the other barons were jealous of the strengthened County of Champagne which had emerged from the Succession War, and now presented a major rival to surrounding areas.

      Whatever the case, the resentful other barons invaded Champagne from 1229-1230. Ironically, the alliances in the invasion were reversed from the arrangement they had been in during the Succession War: Count Henry II of Bar attacked Champagne from the east, prompting Theobald IV to ally with Lorraine to attack the County of Bar. Simon of Joinville, who had fought for the rebel faction during the Succession War, now allied with Theobald IV against the external threat, and aided him in ravaging Bar, which was on the northern border of Joinville's own lands. Unfortunately, the conflict with the County of Bar prompted the more powerful Duchy of Burgundy to invade Champagne from the south, led by Duke Hugh IV (his father Odo III, Blanche of Navarre's staunch ally, had died in 1218). This provoked Queen Blanche to intervene, in order to stop the spread of the conflict.

      Theobald IV was able to repulse the attackers, but at great cost. Champagne's economy was so depleted by these two major wars, as well as the crusading debts of Theobald IV's father and uncle, that Theobald IV had to sell off his overlordship of the counties west of Paris that his ancestors held before expanding east to Champagne: Blois, Sancerre, and Chateaudun. Another major blow to morale came near the start of the invasion of 1229, when Blanche of Navarre died (of natural causes) while in retirement at Argensolles convent. Moreover, Theobald IV's second wife Agnes of Beaujeu suddenly died in 1231, leaving Theobald IV with only their five-year-old daughter, Blanche. This left Champagne in need of a male heir, prompting Theobald IV to remarry in 1232 to Margaret of Bourbon. The situation reached its nadir in 1233, when Henry II's elder daughter Queen Alice of Cyprus threatened to reprise the succession war of Theobald IV's minority yet again. Theobald IV was able to pay off Alice to make her abandon her claim, but this massive expenditure left him even further in debt.

      Rule of Navarre
      Theobald succeeded his uncle Sancho VII of Navarre as King of Navarre. Theobald was in Pamplona at the time of Sancho's death and he immediately affirmed the fueros of the realm. This greatly increased his resources (not to mention his prestige), and the remaining years of his rule were far more peaceful and prosperous. The lords and barons of Northern France who had been in conflict with Theobald IV in 1229 left him in peace, realizing that as the new king of Navarre, his position was too strong to challenge.

      Domestic and foreign policy
      As king, Theobald sealed pacts with the Crown of Castile and that of Aragon, and the Kingdom of England. He entrusted most of the government to nobles of Champagne and divided Navarre into four new districts based on fiscal functions and maintenance of public order. He began the codification of the law in the Cartulario Magno and set down on paper the Navarrese traditions known as the Fuero General, not systematically recorded until that time and kept up following Basque traditions in use on the different districts of the kingdom.

      In order to gain the support of Castile, he had his daughter Blanche engaged to the future Alfonso X. By the marriage pact, Ferdinand III of León offered the lands of Guipúzcoa as long as Theobald lived, but not those of Álava to which the Navarrese monarchs had long laid claim. But with Guipúzcoa he would have attained direct access to the Cantabrian Sea. This alliance was never effected, however, as it would have meant the incorporation of Navarre as a feudum of Castile. The next year, Theobald engaged his daughter to John I, Duke of Brittany, the son of his close crusading ally Peter of Dreux.

      Crusade of 1239
      It was in 1239 that Theobald directed a crusading host to the Holy Land. Militarily, his crusade was not glorious, but it led to several diplomatic successes. He spent much time dallying at pleasant Acre (where he wrote a poem to his wife) before moving on Ascalon, where he began the construction of a castle. He fought two minor battles, one was a slight victory. The second battle, near Gaza was a decisive defeat.[2] He negotiated with the Ayyubids of Damascus and Egypt, who were at odds with each other at the time, finalizing a treaty with the former (in the north) against the latter (in the south) whereby the Kingdom of Jerusalem regained Jerusalem itself, plus Bethlehem, Nazareth, and most of the region of Galilee with many Templar castles, such as Belfort and Saphet.[3] He also negotiated a truce with the Egyptians.[4] Some contemporary sources even imply that the whole of the land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean was put back in crusader hands.

      It is debatable how much of the ultimate success of the crusade (the most successful since the First in territorial terms) was attributable to Theobald's intentions and how much was just fortuitous. He returned from Palestine late in 1240, before Richard of Cornwall arrived, because he did not wish to be present during any more debating over the leadership and direction of the enterprise. Souvenirs that he brought back to Europe included the rose called "Provins" (Latin name rosa gallica 'officinalis', the Apothecary's Rose) from Damascus, transporting it "in his helmet"; a piece of the true cross; and perhaps the Chardonnay grape which in modern times is an important component of champagne.

      Conflict with Church and final years
      Theobald spent most of the remainder of his reign travelling back and forth between Navarre and Champagne. He was at odds with the bishop of Pamplona, Pedro Jiménez de Gazólaz,who held a provincial synod in 1250 to excommunicate him. He refused to respond to papal tribunals, but Pope Innocent IV conceded him the privilege of kings: nobody could excommunicate him save the Holy See. Theobald died at Pamplona, on a return from one of his many visits to Champagne. He was buried in the Cathedral of Pamplona. He was succeeded first by his elder son Theobald II and then by his younger son Henry I.

      Marriages and issue
      Theobald married three times. He married Gertrude of Dagsburg in 1220, and divorced her two years later when he came of age. They had no children.

      Secondly, in 1222, he married Agnes of Beaujeu. The marriage produced at least one child:
      Blanche of Navarre, Duchess of Brittany

      Agnes died in 1231. Theobald married thirdly to Margaret of Bourbon. Theobald and Margaret had six children:
      Eleanor (born 1233, died young)
      Peter (died young)
      Margaret, in 1255 married to Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine
      Theobald II of Navarre
      Beatrix
      Henry I of Navarre

      Theobald had at least two daughters out of wedlock.

      With an unknown mistress, he had Agnes, who married Álvar Pérez de Azagra, 4th Lord of Albarracín.[5]

      With Marquesa López de Rada, daughter of Lope Díaz de Rada and Brunisende of Narbonne, he had Marquesa Gil de Rada, who married Pedro Fernández, baron of Hijar, illegitimate son of king Jaime I of Aragon.

      Notes
      William of Puylaurens, The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens: The Albigensian Crusade and its Aftermath, transl. W.A. Sibly and M.D.Sibly, (Boydell Press, 2003), 81 n168.
      Wikisource-logo.svg "Thibaut de Champagne". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
      Tyerman. God's War. p. 767.
      Richard. The Crusades. p. 325.
      In March 1238, Pedro Fernández de Azagra and king Theobald agreed on the marriage of Álvar and Inés. The agreement was reached in Tudela and is recorded in the Royal Charters, Tome II of the Archivo General de Navarra.

      References
      Setton, Kenneth M. (general editor) A History of the Crusades: Volume II — The Later Crusades, 1189 – 1311. Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard, editors. University of Wisconsin Press: Milwaukee, 1969.
      Casaus Ballester, María José. Los Pedros Fernández de Hijar y el espíritu cruzado entre los siglos XIII y XIV. Aragón en la Edad Media, Num. 20, pp. 187–202, 2008.

      External links
      Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Thibaut IV". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

      ** from http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/lady-the-fates-command/

      Lady, The Fates Command

      Lady, the fates command, and I must go,---
      Leaving the pleasant land so dear to me:
      Here my heart suffered many a heavy woe:
      But what is left to love, thus leaving thee?
      Alas! that cruel land beyond the see!
      Why thus dividing many a faithful heart,
      Never again from pain and sorrow free,
      Never again to meet, when thus they part?

      I see not, when thy presence bright I leave,
      How wealth, or joy, or peace can be my lot:
      Ne'er yet my spirit found such cause to grieve
      As now in leaving thee; and if thy thought
      Of me in absence should be sorrow-fraught,
      Oft will my heart repentant turn to thee,
      Dwelling, in fruitless wishes, on this spot,
      And all the gracious words here said to me.

      O gracious God! to thee I bend my knee,
      For thy sake yielding all I love and prize;
      And O, how mighty must that influence be,
      That steals me thus from all my cherished joys!
      Here, ready, then, myself surrendering,
      Prepared to serve thee, I submit; and ne'er
      To one so faithful could I service bring,
      So kind a master, so beloved and dear.

      And strong my ties---my grief unspeakable!
      Grief, all my choicest treasures to resign;
      Yet stronger still the affections that impel
      My heart toward Him, the God whose love is mine.
      That holy love, how beautiful! how strong!
      Even wisdom's favorite sons take refuge there;
      'T is the redeeming gem that shines among
      Men's darkest thoughts,---for ever bright and fair.



      1.Not for icy wind or storm
      Neither for the morning chill,
      Nor for anything yet born
      Will I ever abandon my will
      To love the thing that’s mine
      For I love her much indeed
      With a love that’s very fine,
      Valara!

      2.She’s pretty, blonde, and nicely hued;
      I like the way that she attracts.
      O God! The thing that I pursued
      You granted exactly as I asked!
      If she is ever denied
      To me, I’ll beg and pray
      Until the day I die-
      Valara!

      3.Lady, in your bailey
      My body and life I’ve placed.
      By God, please don’t assail me!
      Where fine hearts stand with pride effaced,
      Mercy and grace
      A man should find
      To bring him solace.
      Valara!

      4. Lady, do me a courtesy!
      May it please you to impart
      These words for the sake of me:
      My pretty, gentle sweetheart,
      I dare to name you
      For the love of another
      Will never defame you.
      Valara!

      Thibaut IV de Champagne, dit « Thibaut le Posthume » puis « Thibaut le Chansonnier », né le 30 mai 1201 à Troyes, mort le 14 juillet 1253 à Pampelune, fut comte de Champagne de 1201 à 1253 (sous le nom de Thibaut IV), et roi de Navarre de 1234 à 1253 (sous le nom de Thibaut Ier).

      Le comte de Champagne

      Il était fils de Thibauld III, comte de Champagne, et de Blanche de Navarre (1177-1229). Son parrain fut Philippe Auguste, roi de France qui l'éduqua à la cour. Il y fut confié aux bons soins de Blanche de Castille, épouse du prince héritier, le futur Louis VIII, cousine de son père par Aliénor d'Aquitaine et petite-cousine de sa mère par les couples García V de Navarre - Marguerite de l'Aigle et Alphonse VII de Castille - Bérengère de Barcelone.

      Après que la succession lui eut été contestée par un cousin (Guerre de succession de Champagne, 1216-1221), Thibaut prit en main l'administration de ses États.

      Vers 1220, il épousa Gertrude de Dabo (1204 † v. 1225), fille d'Albert II de Dabo-Moha, comte de Dabo, de Moha et de Metz, et veuve de Thiébaud Ier, duc de Lorraine, en espérant s'approprier le comté de Metz. Après l'échec de cette tentative, il répudia Gertrude.

      En 1223, il épousa en secondes noces Agnès de Beaujeu, cousine du futur Saint-Louis qui fut sa compagne de jeux à la cour de France et mourut en 1231. Elle était fille de Guichard IV, sire de Beaujeu et de Sibylle de Hainaut, fille de Baudouin V de Hainaut. Ils eurent :

      Blanche (1226 † 1283), mariée en 1236 avec Jean Ier le Roux († 1286), duc de Bretagne
      En 1224, il participa aux campagnes de Louis VIII contre les Anglais, et notamment au siège de La Rochelle, puis contre les Cathares, mais quitta la croisade une fois effectués les quarante jours de service requis, au grand mécontentement du roi.

      En 1228, il servit de négociateur, avec l'accord du comte de Toulouse, dans l'élaboration du projet de traité de Paris, qui mettra fin à la croisade des Albigeois.

      En 1232, il épousa en troisième noces Marguerite de Bourbon (1211-1256), fille d'Archambaud VIII, seigneur de Bourbon et d'Alix de Forez qui lui donnera :

      Eléonore (1233 † jeune)
      Thibaut II (1238 † 1270), comte de Champagne et roi de Navarre,
      Béatrice (1242 † 1295), mariée en 1258 à Hugues IV (1212 † 1272), duc de Bourgogne
      Pierre, mort en 1265
      Marguerite († 1306), mariée en 1255 à Ferry III († 1302) duc de Lorraine
      Henri Ier le Gros (1244 † 1274), comte de Champagne et roi de Navarre.
      En 1234, Thibaut reçut la couronne de Navarre, après la mort de Sanche VII le Fort, son oncle, frère de sa mère Blanche de Navarre.

      Pendant la minorité de Louis IX, Thibaut rassembla autour de lui quelques « Barons » formant une ligue des grands vassaux qui voulaient s'opposer au sacre du jeune roi, mais les trahissant, il se rendit rapidement auprès du roi et se soumit. Ses alliés, indignés de cette défection, se jetèrent aussitôt sur son comté qu'ils ravagèrent et ils en auraient pris la capitale, Troyes, si l'armée royale n'était venue la secourir. Les rebelles, poursuivis jusqu'à Langres, y furent dispersés1.

      En 1239, à la suite de l'appel du pape Grégoire IX, il conduisit une croisade en Terre sainte.

      En 1240, la légende veut qu'il ait rapporté de Damas « dans son heaume », le rosier dit « de Provins », de son nom latin rosa gallica officinalis (ce qui semble peu probable de par l'absence de sources écrites, et du fait que la variété était déjà cultivée par les Romains), il rapporta également un morceau de la Vraie Croix et la tradition veut qu'il en ait rapporté le cépage Chardonnay qui entre dans la composition du champagne.

      Sa passion amoureuse pour la reine de France, Blanche de Castille — qui en profita pour le manipuler en politique — lui inspira chansons et poésies qu'il faisait peindre sur les murs de ses palais de Troyes et de Provins. Ceci lui valut le qualificatif de « chansonnier ». Il est l'auteur de 71 compositions lyriques variées (dont 37 chansons d'amour) dans lesquelles il fait montre d'une grande virtuosité technique et verbale (il apprécie jeux de mots, pointes, métaphores filées et allégories) ainsi que d'une certaine désinvolture ironique envers la matière courtoise. Thibaut de Champagne est le trouvère le plus célébré de son temps. Il sera au siècle suivant salué par Dante comme un précurseur (De Vulgari Eloquentia).

      Il meurt en Navarre, à Pampelune, le 14 juillet 1253 à l'âge de 52 ans.

      Le roi de Navarre

      Comme il était le fils de Blanche de Navarre, sœur du roi Sanche VII le Fort, à la mort de ce dernier les Navarrais ne tinrent aucun compte de la volonté du roi, qui avait désigné Jacques Ier d'Aragon comme son successeur ; ils appelèrent Thibaut de Champagne qui, un mois après la mort de son oncle, se présenta à Pampelune, où il jura fidélité aux Fueros du royaume, fournissant ainsi à la couronne de Navarre une dynastie bien installée de puissants vassaux dans le nord du royaume de France. C'est ainsi qu'est établie la « Maison de Champagne. »

      Des traités furent conclus avec la Castille, l'Aragon et l'Angleterre, permettant au nouveau souverain de consolider sa couronne. Il gouverna avec l'aide de nobles venus de Champagne qui reçurent des charges importantes. Il réduisit l'importance des fiefs non héréditaires, les tenencias, comme divisions territoriales et créa quatre grands districts confiés à des merinos, à qui il attribua des fonctions fiscales et relevant de l'ordre public. Il établit ses lois par écrit, élaborant un Cartulario Magno où elles figuraient toutes, et il commença la compilation des traditions juridiques de la monarchie navarraise connue sous le nom de « Fuero General ».

      Pour obtenir l'appui de la Castille, il négocia le mariage de sa fille Blanche avec Alphonse, le futur Alphonse X le Sage. Par ce traité Ferdinand III le Saint offrait à Thibaut les terres de Guipuscoa à titre viager, mais pas celles d'Alava comme Thibaut l'aurait voulu. Ainsi le royaume de Navarre aurait eu un accès naturel à la mer Cantabrique. Ce traité, qui ne fut pas appliqué, aurait entraîné l'incorporation de la Navarre à la Castille. Il semble que l'année suivante Thibauld ait promis sa fille Blanche au comte de Bretagne.

      En 1238 il dirigea la Croisade des barons en Terre sainte. Malgré sa défaite, les querelles entre les musulmans lui permirent de signer la paix et d'obtenir pour les chrétiens Jérusalem, Bethléem et Ashkelon. Il revint de la croisade à la fin de 1240 et passa une grande partie de son règne à des voyages continuels entre Navarre et Champagne.


      Confirmation d’une vente de bois à l’abbaye de Saint-Denis par le comte de Champagne et le roi de Navarre Thibaut IV Le Chansonnier. Coulommiers, juillet 1247. Archives nationales de France.
      Il eut d'important différends avec l'évêque de Pampelune, Pedro Jimenez de Gazólaz, et refusa de répondre devant les tribunaux pontificaux. Un concile provincial tenu en 1250 alla jusqu'à l'excommunier, mais le pape lui accorda un privilège spécial selon lequel, sans mandat du Saint-Siège, personne ne pouvait excommunier le roi.

      Thibaut est connu par le surnom de « Troubadour » en raison de la réputation de poète que de son temps il possédait déjà et que l'histoire a confirmée.

      Il mourut à Pampelune au retour d'un de ses voyages en Champagne, et fut enterré dans la cathédrale de Pampelune.

      Thibaut est connu comme troubadour non seulement parce qu'il aimait écrire, mais parce que ses poèmes étaient d'un mérite exceptionnel, et avant même la fin de la croisade de 1238-1240 il écrivait encore. Il fut le premier à mettre par écrit les droits et les libertés du royaume dans ce qu'on a appelé le fuero antiguo, et au cours de son règne il les compila tous, les traditionnels comme les nouveaux.