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BARBOSA, Emperor Frederich I

BARBOSA, Emperor Frederich I

Male 1122 - 1190  (68 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

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  • Name BARBOSA, Frederich 
    Prefix Emperor 
    Suffix
    Born 1122  Waiblingen, Aalen, Ostalbkreis, Baden-Wuerttemberg Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Christened Schwabisch, Gmuend, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    _TAG Request Submitted for Permission 
    _TAG Temple 
    Died 10 Jun 1190  Silifke, İçel, Turkey Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Aft 10 Jun 1190  Church of St. Peter, Antioch, Turkey Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I47644  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith | Joseph Sr., Lucy Mack
    Last Modified 4 Apr 2020 

    Father HOHENSTAUFFEN, Friedrich Von II ,   b. 1090, Schwaben, Bavaria, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Apr 1147, Alzey, Alzey-Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 57 years) 
    Mother WELF, Princess Judith ,   b. 1103, München, Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern, Bavaria, Deutschland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 22 Feb 1125  (Age 22 years) 
    Married 1115  Bavaria, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F20130  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 VOHBURG, Adela Von ,   b. 1125, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married 1147 
    Divorced Yes, date unknown 
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F20129  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 MACON, Beatrix de ,   b. 1131, Schwaben, Bavaria, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 15 Nov 1184, Jouhe, Jura, Franche-Comté, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 53 years) 
    Married 16 Jun 1156 
    Children 
     1. GERMANY, Frederich I ,   b. 1156, Schwaben, Bavaria, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1190  (Age 34 years)
    +2. GERMANY, Emperor Heinrich de Hohenstauffen VI ,   b. Nov 1165, Schwaben, Bavaria, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Sep 1197, Messina, Sicily, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 31 years)
     3. HOHENSTAUFEN, Count Otto von I ,   b. Jun 1170, Macon, Saone-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 13 Jan 1234, Besançon, Franche-Comté, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 63 years)
     4. GERMANY, Conrad ,   b. 1172, Schwaben, Bavaria, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location
    +5. HOHENSTAUFEN, Duke Philipp Von ,   b. 22 Jul 1178, Pavia, Lombardia, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 21 Jun 1208, Bamberg, Oberfranken, Bavaria Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 29 years)
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F19763  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos
    AMBROSE SHURTZ
    A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. It was used as a reliquary in Cappenberg Abbey and is said in the deed of the gift to have been made "in the likeness of the emperor".
    As a young man
    Emperor Frederick Barbosa.jpg
    Emperor Frederick Barbosa.jpg
    https://sg30p0.familysearch.org/service/records/storage/das-mem/patron/v2/TH-904-85869-2449-88/dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
    https://sg30p0.familysearch.org/service/records/storage/das-mem/patron/v2/TH-904-85869-2449-88/dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
    Emperor Fréderic 1er de Barberousse.jpg
    Emperor Fréderic 1er de Barberousse.jpg

  • Notes 
    • Frederick I, surnamed Barbarossa, son of Frederic, Duke of Suabia, and brother of Conrad III. His mother was Judith, daughter of Henry the Black. He was elected Emperor on the death of his uncle, Conrad III, in March 1152.
      Summary

      In 1155, he passed into Italy with an army and was crowned by Pope Adrian IV at Rome. In 1156, he married Beatrice, heiress of Burgundy, and reduced the King or Duke of Poland to become his vassal. In 1158, he led a large army into Italy and subjected the revolted city of Milan, which was punished with rigor. Two rival Popes, Victor IV and Alexander III, having been elected in 1159, Frederic recognized the former and was excommunicated by the latter. His reign was distributed by disputes with the Pope and wars with the cities of Lombardy. His army was defeated by the Lombards, near Legnano, 1176. He then made peace with the Pope Alexander and a truce with his other enemies in Italy. In 1183, the celebrated peace of Constance was concluded between Frederic and the Lombards.

      In 1189, he joined the third crusade with an army of 150,000 men, and after having marched by land as far as Asia Minor, defeated the Turks near Iconium. He was drowned in the river Calycodmis (Calycandus, Cilicia) in 1190. He was ambitious, but liberal, and was considered one of the greatest generals and statesmen of his age. He was succeeded by his son, Henry VI. In The Medieval German Empire 962-1356 Germany, or the eastern half of the Frankish Empire, was the first country in Europe to recover from the setbacks of the ninth century invasions. This fact assured its predominance for upward of three centuries. German rulers never sought to assert control over the West Frankish lands, but, as heirs to the Carolingians, they claimed the imperial title and the right to rule over Italy and the lands of the former 'Middle Kingdom.'
      Background

      Germany's control of the Alpine passes between Lombardy and the Rhinelands assured not only its political preponderance but also gave it a leading place in the cultural exchange between Mediterranean and northern Europe. There was, at first, no sense of a common German, or East Frankish, identity, and the effective control of the first German ruler, Henry I of Saxony (919-936), scarcely extended beyond Saxony and Franconia. But his son, Otto I (936-973), brought the other German duchies under royal control. Also, by defeating the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld (955), he freed Germany from external threats and was able, in 951 and 961, to intervene effectively in Italy. His coronation as Emperor (962) sealed the historic connection between Germany and Italy. As heir to the Carolingian tradition, he also inaugurated a Christian drive against the pagan Slavs on the eastern frontier. But the great Slav revolt of 983 halted this advance until the twelfth century, and German efforts were concentrated instead on the south and southwest. The result, in 1034, was the addition of Burgundy to the imperial domains.
      Emperor Frederich⧽

      In spite of these successes, aristocratic resistance to royal centralization was never overcome, and an opportunity to renew it came in 1075, when the outbreak of conflict between the Emporer Henry IV (1056-1106) and the papacy, which saw imperial power in Italy as a threat to its independence, played into the German princes' hands. The ensuing civil war (1076-1122) was a turning point in German history. Although the monarchy emerged successful, its position was permanently weakened. German power was apparently restored during the reign of Frederick I (1152-1190- this file), but it depended increasingly on the riches of Italy, and this embroiled Frederick not only with the papacy but also with the Italian cities. The marriage of his son, Henry VI, with Constance the heiress of Sicily (1186), held out new possibilities. But the prospect of the union of Sicily and the empire alarmed the papacy, which saw itself being encircled, and led to the final struggle between Frederick II (1212-1250), and Pope Innocent IV. Meanwhile Germany was being overtaken by the western monarchies. The empire under Frederick II was still the most imposing political body in Europe, but by 1200 Paris was the intellectual and cultural centre of Europe, and by comparison with England and Sicily, Germany's financial organization was antiquated. Eastward expansion had begun again after 1138. It added two-thirds to the German territories and shifted the seat of power from Rhine to Elbe. But the beneficiaries were the princes on the eastern frontier, not the monarchy. Later, the Teutonic Knights conquered heathen Prussia, but within the empire the tendency was to fragmentation rather than expansion, and gains in the east were offset by loss of control over Italy which now went its own way. In default of royal authority local leagues were formed to resist princely encroachments and to preserve the peace.
      House of Hohenstaufen

      The most famous and enduring was the Swiss Confederation, formed in 1291. The Golden Bull of 1356, formally recognizing the autonomy of the princes, marked the beginning of a new era in German history; but the age of German preponderance in Europe had already ended a century earlier.[1] [2] It is presumed that all of the Stauffer pioneers that emigrated to America at different times have the same common origin, and are more or less remotely connected, and in all probability the pioneers of this work have also their origin in the ancient House of Hohenstaufen in Suabia. A description of the House of Hohenstaufen is given in a translation from the German history by Fred Raumer, from which we glean the following:

      In the middle of the eleventh century Frederic of Buren removed from the confined valley of Buren to the plain of Hohenstaufen, built the castle and founded the town of Hohenstaufen, and from him descended the Hohenstaufen dynasty. The House of Hohenstaufen exalted itself over all tribes and principalities until after a period of splendor and glory it was suddenly seized by a dreadful calamity and hurled into the darkest night of oblivion, leaving hardly any trades behind.

      At the time of the prosperity of the House of Hohenstaufen their ancestry was traced back to the ancient Emperor of France, as far back as the reign of Charlemagne. A close inquiry, however, throws some doubt on the legend. "Frederic of Buren, founder of the House of Hohenstaufen, was, however, beyond any doubt of Franco-Alsatian ancestry. He was equaled by none of the noblest dukes of Suabia, and was Emperor Henry IV's, of Germany, most steadfast defender and protector. He knew well under his peculiar circumstances the value of a friend like Frederic of Hohenstaufen. Therefore in the year 1079 he called him to Regensburg and said: Brave and vigilant man, whom I always found the truest and bravest among all, you are well aware how in the Roman Empire crime and misdeed prevailed, how through the devil's influence revolt and conspiracy are held sacred, while God's command is despised and the laws of the land tramped under foot. As you have battled in the past against all these evil sods, and as a proof how highly I appreciate your former services, and how sincerely I trust your future, I will give you my only daughter Agnes to wife and the Duchy of Suabia as a dowry. Frederic died in 1105 leaving two sons, Frederic and Conard, who their uncle, Henry V, adopted. After the death of Henry V, in 1125, the Imperial Crown was now again contested between Frederic and Lothaire, Duke of Saxony. Lothaire was elected by fraud. He died in 1137, childless. Frederic having died, the Crown was now again contested between Conrad of Hohenstaufen, and Henry the Proud, Duke of Saxony and heir to Lothaire. Conrad was elected 7 Mar 1137 and crowned March 15. He was born at Ampulia in 1093. His mother was Agnes, daughter of Henry IV. He married Gertrude, Duchess of Sulzbach, in Bavaria. His title was disputed by Henry the Proud of Saxony. A civil war ensued. Conrad gained a victory and the war was ended. In 1147 he conducted a large army of Crusaders into Palestine. He besieged Damascus but failed to take it, and returned in 1149. He died without issue in 1152, and was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick I, surnamed Barbarossa, son of Frederic, Duke of Suabia and brother to Conrad III. His mother was Judith, daughter of Henry the Black.

      Kingdom of Hohenstaufen (Germany)

      (Added note): Frederick I was victorious in arms and enlarged his kingdom. He quarreled with the reigning Pope but was reconciled through the mediation of one of the Doges of Venice. In repeating the vow the Pope said, "To me and St. Peter," but Barbarossa said, "Not to you, but to St. Peter." He died in a crusade against the Turks. Reigned 1152-1190. Ephraim Blood Line. Hohenstaufen Stadt - Goppingen at a glance: The town lies between Stuttgart and Ulm on the northwest edge of the Swabian Alb with its numerous fortresses. In one of the most beautiful regions of Baden-Wurttemberg at the foot of the 684 mile-high historic Hohenstaufen (Kaiserberg), ancestral seat of the Staufen Emperors. Here the Alemannian leader, Geppo, founded a settlement in the Fils Valley after having conquered the Roman Lines (261) A.D.) situated in the north. This settlement was later named "Goppingen" after its founder. In early Staufen times one of the Fredericks of Hohenstaufen, in those days still Duke of Swabia, built it up into a town surrounded by a protective wall. In 1154, the arrival of Frederick I Barbarossa was documented in Goppingen.
      Goppingen Hohenstaufen

      The ancestral castle of his family, the Staufen dynasty, -- destroyed in the Peasants' Revolt of 1525 -- was once situated on the Hohenstaufen. The town museum in the "Storchen" building as well as the room in which Staufen history is documented have numerous exhibits dating from this epoch. In 1273 Goppingen -- up to that time a Staufen dukedom -- became, in the possession of the Counts of Wurtemberg, an official town of Wurttemberg in the district bordering on the sovereign territory of Ulm. Two fires in the years 1425 and 1782 reduced the town to ashes. It was rebuilt by Duke Carl Eugen. Examples of architecture of the past have been preserved. Hohenstaufen - heart of the Staufen country. The Hohenstaufen with its characteristic conical shape is the landmark of the Goppingen countryside. Here, on the over 2000 ft high historical "Kaiserberg," once stood the ancestral castle of the Staufen dynasty, the most important dynasty in German and European history from the 11th to the 13th century.

      The fortress was destroyed in the Peasants' War of 1525. Today parts of the exposed and preserved foundation walls reveal the most important elements in the construction of the fortress of the Hohenstaufen. The modern room where Staufen history is documented, informs about themes in history, art and culture of the Staufen dynasty. It is situated very near to the Church of St. Jacob, also called the Barbarossa Church, which is no doubt the oldest building in the district of Goppingen-Hohenstaufen. A magnificent and fascinating landscape is to be seen from the top of the mountain. The view extends well over the whole of the Staufen countryside. In fine weather the Allgau and Voralberg Alps can be seen. The landscape around the Hohenstaufen as the centre and the other "Kaiserberge" (Emperors' Mountains), the Hohenrechberg and the Stuifen, which lie in the neighboring district of Schwbisch Gmund, belong to the gems of our land. An improved network of paths, which lead mainly through beautiful deciduous and coniferous forests and with parking places around the "Kaiserberg," offer ideal conditions for refreshing walks and longer hikes. A number of Staufen settlements in the Staufen countryside can be reached on foot, for example the ruined fortress of the Hohenrechberg which takes about 1-1/2 hours, the town of Schwabisch-Gmund which takes a good three-hour walk or -- with a short trip to the "Wascherschlob" -- the monastery of Lorch. A visit to Hohenstaufen is worth while at any season of the year. Various possibilities of staying over night ranging from the Youth Hostel to the Panorama Hotel with its commanding view of the counrtyside are to be found; also in the Hohenstaufen town of Goppingen itself a variety of facilities for staying the night are offered. Restaurants and guest houses with a rich variety of meals. In which, of course, Swabian specialities are not lacking, cater for the material well-being of their guests. Hohenstaufen can be just as much a starting point as a finishing point for a round trip on the approximately an 80-mile-long "Strabe der Staufer" (Staufen Way). This tourist route leads through one of the most beautiful country landscapes of Baden-Wurttemberg and touches on nearly all the most important places which are closely connected with the history, art, culture and territories of the Staufen dynasty within its native country and on its own land and property.

      For travel: Worms - The name of this town awakens associations of the Nibelungen legend, the Concordal of Worms, or the Imperial Diet and Parliament of Princes as well as of Martin Luther. There are not many towns in Germany which have experienced and suffered the vicissitudes of history for such a long period of time. Archaeological findings show that the Worms area has been a site for settlements since pre-historic times. The Celts called the town -Barbelomagus-, from which the name "Worms" was later derived. When the Romans came to the Rhine they designated Worms as "Civitas Vangionum," thus adopting the name of the Vangiones tribe. From this there developed the name "Wonnegau" (province of delights), which is appropriate to the fruitful wine-growing landscape. After the migration of nations, the Franks gained soverignty.
      Touring

      The first cathedral was built. The first Royal Palatinate was set up, a favorite Palatinate of Emperor Charlemagne in the 11th and 12th Centuries the Romanic Worms Cathedral grew up, the crowning glory of the town even today. Important rulers such as Heinrich IV, Friedrich Barbarossa or Friedrich II made the town a focal point of the Empire. Grave pillages of the town in the 17th and 18th centuries as well as the destruction of the last World War threw Worms into a critical situation. Even though the town was given a new appearance when it was built up again after 1945, the visitor is confronted at every step with the traces of German and European history.

      The Romanic Kaiserdom (Emperor's Cathedral) and the bishopric churches of St. Andrew, St. Martin and St. Paul are just as much a part of this as the oldest European Jewish Cemetery "Holy Sand" and the synagogue in the Heylshol Art Gallery and in the Judaic Museum the history of art and of the town are awakened to life. The Draifaltigkeitskirche (Holy Trinity Church) and the Luther Monument remind us of the Reformation and of the days of the ruling Lutheran Parliament of 1521. Around the Gothic Liebtrauenkirche (Church of St. Mary) there still grows a delicious wine which is known throughout the world as "Liebfrauenmilch."

      Excellent hotels and restaurants take pains to look after all the needs of visitors to Worms. Contact Tourist Information Office, Neumarkt 14, 6520 Worms. Telephone 062-41/853560. (For travel) Bad Wimpfen - Above the steep slopes of the Neckar Valley the former Emperor's and Free Imperial City of Wimpfen presents an impressive silhouette. Around the year 1200 it was founded by Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa, as the largest Imperial Staufer city north of the Alps. Medieval fortifications, towers, gates, houses, churches and monastery buildings determine the character of the upper city. Just as interesting is the lower part of Wimpfen in the valley, which has its origin in an old protected Roman settlement. The Ritterstiltskirche St. Peter (about 800) is a masterpiece of early gothic architecture and one of the monastery are an outstanding example of gothic architecture The Steinhaus Museum shows exhibits on the city's history. The Oedenburg Heimatmuseum, the Puppenmuseum (Doils Museum) the Museum inside the Pfatzkapelle and the "Glucksschwein Museum" are also worth a visit. Where emperors and kings once enjoyed court life, today the visitor is king. Bad Wimpfen is a recognized "therapeutic bath" city with a modern clinical and curative center. Numerous hotels, inns, pensions and cafes offer a good cuisine and comfort. For information call Tourist Office 7107 Bad Wimpten, Telephone 070/63/7052.
      Conclusion

      Historians consider Frederick I among the Holy Roman Empire's greatest medieval emperors. He combined qualities that made him appear almost superhuman to his contemporaries: his longevity, his ambition, his extraordinary skills at organization, his battlefield acumen and his political perspicacity. His contributions to Central European society and culture include the reestablishment of the Corpus Juris Civilis, or the Roman rule of law, which counterbalanced the papal power that dominated the German states since the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy.
      Footnotes

      Ref: Hohenstaufen (Staufer) Empire and Castles. Map in Family Archives. (Frederick's army was estimated at 100,000 men, 15,000 of whom were knights.)
      Ref: D.K. Cassel's History of the Mennonites The Stauffer Family - According to tradition the Stauffers owe their origin to a generation of knights called Stauffacher, at Hohenstaufen.