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FLANDERS-HAINAULT, Countess Marguerite

FLANDERS-HAINAULT, Countess Marguerite

Female 1202 - 1280  (77 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

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  • Name FLANDERS-HAINAULT, Marguerite 
    Prefix Countess 
    Born 2 Jun 1202  Valenciennes, Nord, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Female 
    Buried Feb 1280  Mortaigne, Nord, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Died 10 Feb 1280  Valenciennes, Nord, Nord-Pas-De-Calais France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    WAC 17 Feb 1940  SGEOR Find all individuals with events at this location 
    _TAG Reviewed on FS 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I47780  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith | Joseph Sr., Lucy Mack
    Last Modified 13 Mar 2020 

    Father FLANDERS, Baudouin VI ,   b. 11 Jul 1171, Valenciennes, Nord, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Jun 1205, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 33 years) 
    Mother CHAMPAGNE, Marie de ,   b. 21 Mar 1174, Champagne, Dordogne, Aquitaine, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 9 Aug 1204, Valenciennes-Nord, Valenciennes, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 30 years) 
    Family ID F19970  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 AVESNES, Lord Bouchard d' ,   b. 22 Jul 1175, Avesnes, Nord, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Sep 1244, Clairefontaine, Diekirch, Luxemburg Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 69 years) 
    Divorced Yes, date unknown 
    Children 
     1. AVESNES, Count Baudouin d' ,   b. 1217, Avesnes, Nord, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 1219  (Age < 1 years)
    +2. AVESNES, Count Jean d' I ,   b. 1 May 1218, Houffalize, Luxembourg, Belgium Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Dec 1257, Valenciennes, Nord, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 39 years)
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F18944  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 DAMPIERRE, Seigneur Guillaume  
    Last Modified 6 Oct 2020 
    Family ID F20183  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsWAC - 17 Feb 1940 - SGEOR Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Photos
    AMBROSE SHURTZ
    dist.jpg?ctx=ArtCtxPublic
    As a young man
    Margaret II Countess of Flanders 2 June 1202 – 10 February 1280	 •
    Margaret II Countess of Flanders 2 June 1202 – 10 February 1280 •
    find a grave
    Margaret II of Flanders from 'Album of the Cortes of the Counts of Flanders,' by Felix de Vigne. 1849.
    Margaret II of Flanders from "Album of the Cortes of the Counts of Flanders," by Felix de Vigne. 1849.

  • Notes 
    • BIO: from http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FLANDERS,%20HAINAUT.htm#MargueriteIIdied1280A, as of 10/31/2014
      MARGUERITE de Flandre (2 Jun 1202-10 Feb 1280). The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Iohannam et Margaretam" as the two daughters of "Balduinus"[586]. The Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini records that "secunda filia Margareta" was born after her parents left on their travels[587]. On the other hand, according to Villehardouin Comtesse Marie stayed behind when her husband left on Crusade, gave birth, and afterwards left for Acre where she died[588]. After her father's death, she was sent to Paris with her sister on the orders of Philippe II King of France[589]. Matthew of Paris names Bouchard as first husband of Marguerite in his description of the background to the war in Flanders in 1254[590]. Her first marriage was arranged by King Philippe II, her husband being a noble from Hainaut whose family had long supported French interests. Her first husband demanded a share of his late father-in-law's inheritance and, after complaining to Pope Innocent III, the marriage was annulled by the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 on the grounds that Bouchard d'Avesnes had previously taken holy orders. The couple remained together until Bouchard was captured by his sister-in-law Ctss Jeanne in 1219. He was released two years later on condition he separate from his wife[591]. The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon records the marriage of "Marghareta" and "Willelmo de Dampetra"[592]. Matthew of Paris names Guillaume as second husband of Marguerite in his description of the background to the war in Flanders in 1254[593]. The Annales Blandinienses record the succession in 1244 of "Margareta soror eius [=Iohanna comitissa}"[594]. She succeeded her sister in 1244 as MARGUERITE II Ctss of Flanders and Ctss de Hainaut, both her husbands having died. Her children by her first marriage claimed their inheritance, but Louis IX King of France ruled in 1246 that Hainaut should be given to the Avesnes children and Flanders to the Dampierre children[595]. She abdicated 29 Dec 1278 in favour of her son Guy de Dampierre. The Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis records the death "IV Id Feb" of "Margarete Flandrie et Hanonie…comitisse"[596]. m firstly (before 23 Jul 1212, annulled 1215, separated [1221]) BOUCHARD d'Avesnes, son of JACQUES Seigneur d'Avesnes, de Leuze et de Condé & his wife Adeline de Guise ([1180]-1244, bur Clairefontaine). Matthew of Paris names Bouchard as first husband of Marguerite in his description of the background to the war in Flanders in 1254[597]. m secondly ([18 Aug/15 Nov] 1223) GUILLAUME [II] Seigneur de Dampierre, son of GUY [II] Seigneur de Dampierre, Sire de Bourbon & his wife Mathilde de Bourbon, dame de Bourbon (after 1196-3 Sep 1231).

      ** from Wikipedia listing for Margaret II, Countess of Flanders, as of 10/31/2014
      Margaret, called of Constantinople (2 June 1202 – 10 February 1280) was countess of Flanders from 1244 to 1278 and also, countess of Hainaut from 1244 to 1253 and again from 1257 until her death.

      History and Family
      She was the younger daughter of Baldwin I of Constantinople, who was also count of Flanders and Hainaut, and Marie of Champagne. He left on the Fourth Crusade before she was born, and her mother left two years later, leaving Margaret and her older sister Joan in the guardianship of their uncle Philip of Namur.

      After her mother died in 1204, and her father the next year, the now-orphaned Margaret and her sister remained under Philip's guardianship until 1208, when he gave their wardship to King Philip II of France. During her time in Paris, she and her sister became familiar with the Cisterian Order, probably under influence of Blanche of Castile, the future Queen consort of France.[1]

      In 1212 Margaret married Bouchard d'Avesnes, a prominent Hainaut nobleman. This was apparently a love match, though it was approved by Margaret's sister Joan, who had herself recently married. The two sisters subsequently had a falling-out over Margaret's share of their inheritance, which led Joan to attempt to get Margaret's marriage dissolved. She alleged that the marriage was invalid, and without much inspection of the facts of the case Pope Innocent III condemned the marriage, though he did not formally annul it.

      Bourchard and Margaret continued as a married couple, having 3 children, as their conflict with Joan grew violent and Bouchard was captured and imprisoned in 1219. He was released in 1221 on the condition that the couple separate and that Bouchard get absolution from the pope. While he was in Rome, Joan convinced Margaret to remarry, this time to William II of Dampierre, a nobleman from Champagne. From this marriage Margaret had two sons: William and Guy of Dampierre.

      This situation caused something of a scandal, for the marriage was possibly bigamous, and violated the church's strictures on consanguinity as well. The disputes regarding the validity of the two marriages and the legitimacy of her children by each husband continued for decades, becoming entangled in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire and resulting in the long War of the Succession of Flanders and Hainault.

      Countess
      At the death of her sister Joan, Margaret succeeded her as Countess of Flanders and Hainaut.

      In 1246 king Louis IX of France, acting as an arbitrator, gave the right to inherit Flanders to the Dampierre children, and the rights to Hainaut to the Avesnes children. This would seem to have settled the matter, but in 1253 problems arose again. The eldest son, John I of Avesnes, who was uneasy about his rights, convinced William of Holland, the German king recognized by the pro-papal forces, to seize Hainaut and the parts of Flanders which were within the bounds of the empire. William of Holland was theoretically, as king, overlord for these territories, and also John's brother-in-law. A civil war followed, which ended when the Avesnes forces defeated and imprisoned the Dampierres at the Battle of Walcheren. Guy was ransomed in 1256 and the death of Margaret's son John strengthened their position.

      Like her sister, Margaret conducted an economic policy designed to encourage international commerce.[2] She removed restrictions on foreigner traders, despite pressures from local traders, who wanted to maintain monopolies. She also issued a new coinage. Her policies helped Bruges turn into an international port.

      In 1278, she abdicated in Flanders in favour of her son Guy. She ruled Hainaut until her death in 1280.

      Patronage
      Like her sister, Margaret supported religious houses. In 1245, she founded the Béguinage in Bruges. She also had an interest in architecture and patronized writers and poets.[3]

      Issue
      With Bouchard of Avesnes:
      Baldwin (1217–1219)
      John I (1218–1257), later Count of Hainault
      Baldwin (1219–1295), Lord of Beaumont

      With William II of Dampierre:
      William III, Count of Flanders and Lord of Kortrijk
      Guy, Count of Flanders and Margrave of Namur
      John I, Lord of Dampierre, Viscount of Troyes, and Constable of Champagne
      Joanna

      Notes
      Wheeler and Parsons. p. 193. Missing or empty |title= (help)
      Shahar. p. 127. Missing or empty |title= (help)
      Shahar. p. 127. Missing or empty |title= (help)

      References
      Shahar, S. (1997). Growing Old in the Middle Ages: 'Winter Clothes us in Shadow and Pain'. Routledge.
      Wheeler, B. and Parsons, J. (2002). Eleanor of Aquitaine: Lord and Lady. Palgrave Macmillan.

      External links
      Wikimedia Commons has media related to Margaret II of Flanders.
      Women's Biography: Margaret of Constantinople, Countess of Flanders
      Coat of Arms in the Walford Roll

      References
      Shahar, S. (1997). Growing Old in the Middle Ages: 'Winter Clothes us in Shadow and Pain'. Routledge.
      Wheeler, B. and Parsons, J. (2002). Eleanor of Aquitaine: Lord and Lady. Palgrave Macmillan.

      Marguerite II de Flandre (°v.1202 † 1280) ou Marguerite de Hainaut ou Marguerite de Constantinople, dite la Noire est comtesse de Flandre et de Hainaut de 1244 à 1280, ainsi que dame de Beaumont (Hainaut).

      Origines et famille

      Elle est la fille cadette du comte Baudouin IX, Baudouin VI de Hainaut, comte de Flandre et de Hainaut, puis empereur latin de Constantinople et de Marie de Champagne (°1174 † 1204). Marguerite est la sœur de la comtesse Jeanne de Flandre (°1188 † 1244).

      Biographie

      En 1202, Baudouin participe à la quatrième croisade, et Marie le rejoint deux ans plus tard, confiant Marguerite encore bébé et sa sœur Jeanne, aux bons soins de leur oncle Philippe de Namur, puis de l'évêque de Liège. La mère de Jeanne meurt en 1205, et son père, l'année suivante. Philippe de Namur qui assure la régence à son plus grand profit, confie les deux filles au roi de France, Philippe-Auguste. Celui-ci à son tour concède leur garde à Enguerrand III de Coucy.

      Vers 1212, alors qu'elle n'a que dix ans, Marguerite est confiée à un parent, le quadragénaire Bouchard d'Avesnes, bailli du Hainaut et sous-diacre de l'église de Laon, qui s'empresse de l'épouser. Concernant la part de succession de Marguerite, les deux sœurs se déchirent, Jeanne tentant de dissoudre le mariage, alléguant qu'il était inadmissible. Sans beaucoup d'instruction des faits, le pape Innocent III se contente de condamner le mariage, sans pour autant formellement l'annuler.

      Bouchard et Marguerite continuent de mener leur vie familiale, ayant deux fils, Jean et Baudouin. Tant et si bien que leurs conflits avec Jeanne se développent. Bouchard est capturé et emprisonné en 1219. Il est libéré en 1221, à la condition que le couple se sépare et que Bouchard obtienne l'absolution du pape. Tandis qu'il était à Rome, Jeanne convainc Marguerite de se remarier, cette fois à Guillaume II de Dampierre, un noble de Champagne.

      Cette situation fut la cause d'un véritable scandale, parce que Marguerite était de fait probablement bigame, et en violation des règles de l'Église. Les conflits concernant la validité des deux mariages et la légitimité des enfants, perturbent la politique du Saint-Empire romain germanique pendant des décennies.

      À la mort de Jeanne, en 1244, Marguerite succède à sa sœur et devient comtesse de Flandre et de Hainaut.

      En 1246 le roi Louis IX de France, arbitre les droits de succession, donnant la Flandre aux enfants de Dampierre, et le Hainaut aux enfants d'Avesnes. Ceci semblerait avoir réglé la question, mais en 1253 de nouveaux problèmes surgissent. Jean le fils le plus âgé, d'Avesnes n'étant pas satisfait de son sort, convainc Guillaume II, comte de Hollande, roi de Germanie, son beau-frère, de s'emparer du Hainaut et des régions de Flandre qui se trouvent dans les limites de l'empire. Une guerre civile s'ensuit, qui finit par la victoire des forces d'Avesnes à la bataille de Walcheren (Westkapelle) et l'emprisonnement de Dampierre.

      En 1260 elle fonde l'Abbaye Sainte-Élisabeth du Quesnoy.

      Ascendance

      Mariages et enfants[modifier | modifier le code]
      Elle épousa en premières noces en 1212 Bouchard d'Avesnes (1182 † 1244), seigneur d'Avesnes, bailli de Hainaut. Ils eurent :

      Baudouin († 1219)
      Jean (1218 † 1257),
      Baudoin d'Avesnes (1219 † 1289), chevalier, chroniqueur, qui devient seigneur de Beaumont (Hainaut) en 1246.
      Obligée de se séparer de son époux en 1221, Marguerite se remarie en 1223 avec Guillaume II de Dampierre (1196 † 1231) seigneur de Dampierre. Ils eurent :

      Guillaume III (1224 † 1251), comte de Flandre et seigneur de Courtrai
      Gui de Dampierre (1225 † 1305), comte de Flandre et margrave de Namur
      Jean I († 1258), seigneur de Dampierre, vicomte de Troyes et connétable de Champagne
      Jeanne, mariée en 1239 à Hugues III de Rethel († 1243), comte de Rethel, puis en 1243 à Thiébaud II († 1291), comte de Bar