MACKGAHYE, John - I44080

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The Macks of Scotland are descended from Millesius of Spain from about 1300 BC - A descendant of Joseph in the Old Testament gave his youngest son, Ephraim the Stone of Destiny

Battle of Dunbar.jpg

or sometimes called Stone of Scone. Ephraim's descendant was Gatholus, a great explorer and also a prince in Israel. He married Scota, the daughter of Pharoah Ramses II. Their son was Iber (Heber). Hammutal, daughter of Jeremiah (Prophet of the Bible) married Josiah, King of Palestine or Israel. Ephraim gave the Stone of Destiny to Milesius, who eventually reached the shore of Ireland and became the father of Heremon and his descendant was John Mack.

Covenantors Scottish Notes and Queries by John Bullock, John Alexander Henderson ... - 1904 (SCOTCH AND FORERUNERS OF PREBYTERIAN COVENANTERS WERE THE NON-CONFORMISTS IN SCOTLAND IN THE 1600's. IN 1653 THE BATTLE OF DUNBAR, 5000 SCOTS WERE TAKEN PRISONERS AND THOSE THAT SURVIVED THE MARCH TO ENGLAND WERE SENT TO AMERICA ON THE SHIP JOHN AND SARA AS INDENTURED SERVANTS.) [1] Court Record/Military Record of a John Mack (Father of the immigrant John Mack) in 1679 Bothwell (John Mack could have escaped aboard the Anne and Hester in April 1680. Ship arrived in Boston, MA from Ireland with Scotch Covenanters. The Scottish birth records show a John Mack - born to John and Barbara Mack - on October 14, 1653. They also show another John Mack born March 8, 1654; a third John Mack - born to John and Margaret Mack - on July 4, 1654; and a fourth John Mack - born to Andrew Mack - on June 19, 1659. [2]

This is what the Scottish records prove: The Scotch Covenanters (forerunners of Presbyterians) were the non-conformists in Scotland in the 17th Century. Oliver Cromwell agreed with them religiously but led the English army against the Scots and won the Battle of Dunbar in 1650. 5,000 Scots were taken prisoner and those that survived the march to England were sent to America on the ship "John and Sara" as indentured servants. When the monarchy was restored in 1660 the English persecuted anyone who would not return to the Anglican Church. The Macks of Lanarkshire were one of the families persecuted. The history of the Church of Scotland tells of John Mack from Caldergreen, John Mack portioner (land-owner) of Hinselwood, Andrew Mack of the parish of Kilbride, Andrew Mack of Harestock, and James Mack of West Matthie being punished as non-conformists in 1679. In 1679, a John Mack was indicted in absence, found guilty, and ordered to be executed although he had been dead for several years. (This could be the husband of the Widow Mack and father to John Mack in Wodrow's account below.) The sentence of other Covenanters who were indicted and found guilty in 1679 was being banished to America. In 1679 the Widow Mack and her daughter were harassed and fined for not turning their brother John Mack (the son) over to the authorities. When he escaped, everyone in the parish was forced to take an oath and swear "I do not know where John Mack is."

In 1680 some of the Covenanters made it to Ireland and sailed to Boston on the ship "Anne and Hester" arriving in April. Could John Mack been one of them? [3] John Mack wasn't old enough to have been one of the prisoners exiled to America after the Battle of Dunbar in 1653, although there was a Frank Mack listed on the ship register. The American records prove: John Mack married Sarah Bagley in Salisbury (16 miles north of Boston) April 5, 1681. Their first son (John Mack Jr.) was born there in 1682. They then moved to Concord and had 6 more children before settling in Lyme, Connecticut, in 1696 and having their last 5 children. They lived there until John Mack's death in 1721. Five branches of John Mack's descendants in America (Daniel, David, William, Silas, and Elisha) all claim this same heritage.[4]

SECONDARY SOURCES IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER: HISTORY OF THE COVENANTERS IN SCOTLAND" BY REVEREND ROBERT WODROW VOL. 3. P. 388 (1679) Wodrow tells of the Widow Mack's son, John Mack, escaping during the persecution of the Scottish Covenanters.

"But the inhumanity of the oppressors was not confined to deeds of extortion; they added the most revolting cruelty to avarice, and acted a part which would puzzle the most inveterate Tory writer to vindicate. In the parish of Kilbride, for example, Captain Inglis having seized three countrymen [Andrew Mack, John Carnduff, and Thomas Miller], who refused to swear the oath which he was pleased to dictate, deliberately tortured them by means of lighted matches bound between their fingers, till they were deprived of the use of their hands. Inglis then repaired to the house of a widow Mack, with the intention of apprehending her son; but the young man having made his escape, the captain collected the whole inhabitants of the district, and tendered to each of them the following oath: "By the eternal God, and as I am content to lose my part in heaven, I know not where John Mack is." One individual, refusing to swear so impious an oath, Inglis and his men beat him with their guns and swords, till they left him for dead!"[5]

A Genealogical History of the Hoyt Families with . . . A List of the First Settlers of Salisbury and Amesbury, Mass." by David W. Hoyt (Published 1871) page 73 "Centennial Historical Discourse of the Presbytery Church" by Reverend Ira C. Tyson delivered 1876 page 4 "In the original memorial to Governor Shute, of Massachusetts, dated 1718, wherein the memorialists, "Inhabitants of ye north of Ireland," requested encouragement to come to this country and settle, we find many names of those who were closely identified with the early history of this town. They trace their origin, therefore, back to Scotland and to Scottish Presbyterianism. Their ancestors were the men who came for Argyleshire, in 1612, to the counties of Ulster, Antrim and Londonderry, in the north of Ireland, who were foremost in the memorable siege of Londonderry, by which the Papal restoration in England, under James the II, was successfully resisted; and who, having thus fought for their liberties, especially for the liberty to worship God, refused conformity to the Church Establishment, and chose rather to suffer the privations of life in the wilderness than yield to the dictation of a persecuting hierarchy."

MACK Coat of Arms

Mack Crest.jpg

The History of Stanstead County Province of Quebec Forests and Clearings Compiled by Benjamin F. Hubbard (Published 1874) pp.39-43, 110-113, 166, 220-232 Marlow Settlement on page 42 under the heading William Mack Esq. reads: All the Mack families in America are supposed to be descendants of three brothers that came from Scotland early in the 17th century, having been compelled to leave that country on account of religious intolerance and persecution. As those men were proscribed and a price set upon their heads, it has been difficult to trace the genealogies of their descendants. In 1755 Ebenezer Mack was ordained a Baptist preacher in Lyme, Conn. He married Abigail Davis. . . Some of the descendants of these families settled in Stanstead. The Mack, Gustin, Miller, Beebe, Bingham, and Ball families were directly related to each other by marriage. Willard Mack, M.D. was the oldest son of Abijah Mack and came to Stanstead with his parents when about 7 years old." [6] Mack Genealogy, Volumes 1 and 2: The Descendants of John Mack of Lyme, Connecticut with Appendix Containing Genealogy of Allied Families, etc. (Written 1879 and Published 1902), by Sophie Rutland Martin Smith Family sources referenced. On page 8-9, "This family in America is of Scottish descent from a family of sufficient importance to have a Coat of Arms Coat of Arms Mack (of Scotland) "A paley of eight or [gold] and gules [red], a bend sinister azure [sky blue) sash from upper left to lower right of paley] charged with a martlet [black bird in flight depicted without legs] between two mullets [5 pointed gold star] of the first." "Crest, a water bouget sa.(leather bags used by soldiers to carry water). "Motto, In spe et labore transigo vitam. ("I pass in life in hope and labor.") "The motto is a glorious one-and so well fitting our family. An aged kinswoman whom I found in the city has zealously traced our ancestry back to the Highlands of Scotland and find them noted as a very strong, brave people."

MACK FAMILY CREST On page 12, "The name Mack has been thought not to be the real name, but only a prefix to some other name as McDougal, McKenzie, etc.; and that in the perilous times only the prefix was retained, as they came to this country to avoid oppression and cruel bondage and to shun persecution-but of this branch of the Mack family, it was not so-for they were a family of sufficient importance to have a Coat of Arms in Scotland-see letter, also the description of same. The motto, 'In spe et labore transigo vitam,' was a complete type of their character-hard workers and hopeful. Our ancestors were mostly me of good estates and families, of liberal education and of large experience, and they were strict Puritans." On page 17, "John Mack is said to have emigrated to America from Scotland in 1669, the place said to be Inveress, Heidelburg. He was b. Mar 6, 1653, d. Feb 24, 1721. He m. April 5, 1681, in Boston, Sarah Bagley, who was born there Mar. 2, 1663. She was daughter of Orlando and >Sarah (Colby) Bagley." On page 62, Silas W. Mack, Esquire of Monterey, California wrote: "Letters written over twenty- five years ago by Mrs Frederic A. Barker [Candace Adaline Mack (b. 1840 4th Great granddaughter of immigrant John Mack) to my cousin, the late William P. Mack (1833-1891) of Stanstead, P. Quebec, Canada, fell into my hands and were the means of opening up a correspondence revealing the existence of the 'Genealogy of the Mack Family.' . . . To William Mack (1788-1872) I am indebted for a small, home-made, pocket, memorandum book, filled with names and dates of birth, marriage, and death, all in his own handwriting, of the members of his grandfather's family and of many of their descendants living in his day. That most of the information here given concerns only descendants of Silas Mack (1755-1836) and especially those through his son of same name " [7].

John was born 11 Nov 1627 in, East Lothian, Scotland and died in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. The name of Mack found in early records has various spellings: Mac, Mec, Mick, and others. Just who are the British anyway? Queen Elizabeth II on her coronation day. When one traces the roots of the Britons, Scots, Irish, Welsh, English (Anglos and Saxons), Picts, Normans, and Celts, there is substantial evidence that all of those peoples are of Israelite descent.

The tribe of Joseph seems to be best represented, but there is evidence for the presence of several of the tribes. Volumes have been written on that subject, but in this article, it will be taken as a starting point that the inhabitants of the British Isles have a lot of the blood of Israel. Because of this anniversary date of the monarchy, let us focus on the succession of British royalty.

Is the Lineage of King David's Throne Still Intact?

1. King David's Throne There is a strong tradition that the British royal line is the continuation of the throne of King David of the ancient "United Kingdom" of Israel and Judah.


An examination of the genealogies of those kings clearly shows their descent from that royal line. The Lord made a covenant with King David, which was not conditional on David's continued righteousness. The Lord stated: I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant, Thy seed will I establish for ever, and build up thy throne to all generations I have found David my servant; with my holy oil have I anointed him: With whom my hand shall be established: mine arm also shall strengthen him. Also I will make him my firstborn, higher than the kings of the earth. My mercy will I keep for him for evermore, and my covenant shall stand fast with him. His seed also will I make to endure for ever, and his throne as the days of heaven. If his children forsake my law, and walk not in my judgments; If they break my statutes, and keep not my commandments; Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes. Nevertheless my loving kindness will I not utterly take from him, nor suffer my faithfulness to fail. My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips. Once have I sworn by my holiness that I will not lie unto David. His seed shall endure for ever, and his throne as the sun before me. It shall be established for ever as the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven.[8]

Thus, the Lord covenanted that, notwithstanding their potential wickedness, the descendants of David would rule as kings over Israel forever. If they became wicked, then they could bring calamity on themselves and their subjects, but their kingly line would continue. That's an amazing prophecy. All it would take to break the monarchy is to be overthrown, or to have no royal descendant who could inherit the throne. So has the royal line continued unbroken? It clearly was continuous for some four centuries until the time of King Zedekiah, last King of Judah in Jerusalem. In 587 B.C., at the fall of Jerusalem to Babylon, King Zedekiah, of the royal line of David, saw his sons slain before his eyes[9]. It was apparently Nebuchadnezzar's attempt to end the succession of Jewish kings, but there was a detail of the Hebrew law with which he was apparently unfamiliar. A princess could also inherit the throne if she married someone from the tribe of Judah[10].

So what about the daughters of Zedekiah? We are explicitly told that the daughters of Zedekiah were taken to Egypt along with the Prophet Jeremiah and others[11]. There Jeremiah prophesied that all those who fled to Egypt would also be killed, except a few who should escape[12]. That is where the Biblical story of Jeremiah ends, except for the hint that Jeremiah's mission was not only to tear down, but also to plant[13]. No planting is described in his mission in Jerusalem. Where did Jeremiah do his planting? And where was the new kingdom described in the parable given to Ezekiel, where a "tender twig," cut from the highest branch of the high cedar, would be planted and grow into a great kingdom, and that the lower tree would be exalted above the upper?[14] That tender twig may well have been the daughter of Zedekiah. For the "rest of the story" we must turn to the history of ancient Ireland. The following account is summarized from authenticated histories rather than mere legends or speculation.

2. Jeremiah and the Scottish Royalty The earliest known colonizers of Ireland were the Danai, who almost certainly were from the tribe of Dan. They had separated from the other tribes shortly after the Exodus, and founded some cities in Greece, including Athens. About 1200 B.C. a colony of Danai from Greece journeyed to Ireland. Centuries later a group of Israelites called the Milesians arrived and subjugated the Danai. The Milesians were either the same as, or joined with, the Scots, who had migrated to Ireland from Scythia[15], near the Black Sea. The Flag of Northern Ireland combines the Star of David (Pharez) with the Red Hand (Zerah). The kings of both of these nations came from Judah, from the line of Zerah.

Who was Zerah? Judah was given the promise that his children would reign until Shiloh comes[16]. His descendants all come through his twin sons Pharez and Zerah. David came through the line of Pharez, and a similar promise was made to him concerning his descendants, as noted above. But the line of Zerah also produced many kingly lines, including the kings of ancient Ireland. For the purposes of this article, we need only understand that the ancient Irish were of Israel, and their kings were from Zerah, whose symbol was a red hand, or a hand with red thread tied around it[17]. The histories say that in about 584 B.C. a Milesian chieftain named Gathelus became a hero in Egypt and married the Pharaoh's daughter, Scota. Gathelus must have given her that name in honor of Scotia, or Scythia, the former country of the Scots.

The histories explicitly state that Gathelus was a descendant of Cecrops who founded Athens. My conclusion after doing this research is that the Milesians were not the same as the Scots. The Milesians were most likely a second colony from Greece which came about 1000 B.C., and the Scots probably migrated from the Black Sea after the Assyrian captivity in Israel about 700 B.C. Thus, Gathelus giving his wife the name Scota might have been a way to help politically merge the two groups into one. They moved to the part of Spain now called Portugal and built the city of Brigance and called his subjects Scots. Gathelus and Scota had a son named Eochaidh whose wife Teah Tephi chose Ireland to be their residence. They founded Tara in Ireland, officially called their subjects "Scots" in honor of his mother, and Ireland later became known as Scotia.

The histories also mention that Eochaidh was accompanied by a prophet named Ollam Fodhla and his scribe Berach. Gathelus (or perhaps Ollam Fodhla) prophesied that wherever his marble seat would be found, there would reign one of his descendants over the Scots. Ollam Fodhla, The Harp, is the Symbol of Ireland on the Royal Flag. What has all of this got to do with our story? Some versions identify Scota as the daughter of King Zedekiah, Ollam Fodhla as Jeremiah, and Berach as his scribe Baruch. But wasn't Scota the daughter of Pharaoh? Remember that "pharaoh" is simply the Egyptian word for king, and Zedekiah's daughter certainly was a king's daughter who was in Egypt. The traditions also state that the small group who thus escaped from Egypt took with them to Ireland the harp of David, the ark of the covenant, and the stone of Jacob. It states that King Eochaidh was coronated by Jeremiah in Ireland while sitting on the stone of Jacob, and some versions add that his wife Teah was the sister of Scota and also a daughter of Zedekiah. The harp of David became a national emblem of Tara and of Ireland. The Stone of Destiny All the kings of the Scots in Tara were coronated on that stone for over a thousand years. Then about A.D. 500, Fergus of Ireland conquered the Picts who lived in Scotland. The Picts agreed to accept him as king, so he had the Stone of Destiny moved to Scotland, where he was crowned on it. It thereafter also became known as the Stone of Scone (pronounced "Scoon ") because it resided at the castle there. True to the prophecy, that land where the stone resided was ruled by a Scottish king, and became known as Scotland. Later, King James VI of Scotland became James I of England, and today Queen Elizabeth is his descendant. Thus, even now that Scotland forms part of Great Britain, it is still true that the Scots are ruled by a monarch of Scottish royal descent.

The Coronation Chair was built around the Stone of Scone (just below the seat). The Stone of Destiny was moved to Westminster Abbey in London, England, in 1296 A.D. by King Edward I. He had a special "coronation chair" built around that stone, and all of the British kings and queens have been crowned in that chair since, including the currently reigning Queen Elizabeth II. In 1996 the stone was returned to Scotland. Were Davidic Kings Coronated on the Stone? The Coronation ceremony appears to have been taken as directly as possible from the description in the Bible of the coronation of David and Solomon. The monarch is anointed with sacred oil by the Archbishop of Canterbury, trumpets sound, and the people shout "God Save the King"[18]. The royal crown contains twelve jewels made of the same twelve stones which were in the breastplate of the high priest[19]. These similarities alone do not prove that the kings really are the royal blood of Israel, but such would be expected if the British throne is the continuation of the throne of David. Of course, the royalty also have extensive genealogies to prove their lineage. It is interesting to note, however, that although the stone is not explicitly mentioned as part of the Biblical coronation ceremony, there seem to be references to it which have been overlooked. Consider the following accounts of when King Joash of Judah was anointed by the high priest Jehoiada: And when she looked, behold, the king stood by a pillar, as the manner was, and the princes and the trumpeters by the king, and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets[20] Then they brought out the king's son, and put upon him the crown, and gave him the testimony, and made him king. And Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and said, God save the king. Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she came to the people into the house of the LORD: And she looked, and, behold, the king stood at his pillar at the entering in, and the princes and the trumpets by the king: and all the people of the land rejoiced, and sounded with trumpets, also the singers with instruments of musick, and such as taught to sing praise.[21]

Here we are told that along with the usual parts of the coronation ceremony, that also the king stood at his pillar, as was the custom at coronation. What does that mean? Some Bible translations are more literal and render it, "The king stood on the pillar." How can one stand on a pillar? It turns out the word translated pillar come from the root meaning "to stand" and can also refer to a "stand" or "platform." The meaning of pillar come from the idea that a pillar is standing up on its end. So the verses could also be saying that the king was coronated while standing on his stand, as was the custom. Was that stand or pillar the Stone of Destiny? If so, just what is it that makes this stone so special? It was called the Stone of Jacob. Just what was the stone of Jacob?

Stone of Jacob

3. Rock of Israel The is a strange story in the Book of Genesis, which has been somewhat enigmatic. In the light of knowing about the traditions surrounding the Stone of Destiny, and knowing its size and shape, and knowing that authentic or not, an unbroken chain of kings has been crowned on that stone for centuries, the following history now makes a lot more sense. Nearly two thousand years before Christ, the Prophet Jacob (as in "Abraham, Isaac and Jacob"), was traveling back to the land of Haran to choose a wife. When he passed by a city named Luz, the following event occurred:

And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the LORD stood above it, and said, I am the LORD God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed; And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed. And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee in all places whither thou goest, and will bring thee again into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of. And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said, Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not. And he was afraid, and said, How dreadful is this place! this is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. And he called the name of that place Bethel: but the name of that city was called Luz at the first. [22]

The Stone of Destiny / Jacob

This account includes several puzzling features. First, a stone small enough to use as a pillow seems hard to imagine being set up as a pillar. Second, just because he had a dream about how the multitudes of his posterity would spread out all over the world, why would he anoint his pillow stone with oil? And what did he mean that the stone would be for God's house? It was important enough that he renamed the place Bethel, which means "House of God." Did it have something to do with a temple? The Stone of Jacob, The Stone of Destiny - The size and shape of Stone of Destiny helps make sense of this account, in case it really is this stone of Jacob. First, it is in fact about the size and shape of a big pillow, being about 26 x 16 x 10 inches. It was apparently already a stone which had been cut into a rectangular building shape when Jacob found it. It was probably rejected by the builders because it has a crack in it, so it had been discarded before being finished. If the Stone of Destiny really is Jacob's stone, then it is easy to see how he could stand it up on its end to be a "pillar." Actually, it might have been difficult because it weighs over 300 pounds.

Checking the meaning of the word translated "pillar," we see that it means a "stone marker," which often were very large pillars. Most likely this one served mostly as a marker, so that he could find the location when he returned. Two decades and a dozen children later, Jacob was commanded to return to Bethel. After Jacob returned, and had built and anointed a more permanent altar, God appeared to him there and announced that his name would be changed to Israel, adding "a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins"[23]. This is most likely the time when Jacob decided to bring the original stone with him, though we are not explicitly told that detail. Note that the announcement that kings would descend from him occurred there. It would not be surprising if he was also given to know the future relation that his stone might have to those kings. The Stone of Destiny has two rings which have clearly been used for transporting the stone by sliding a pole through both rings. There is a groove worn between the two rings which testifies of having been gradually eroded by such transport for an extended period. The stone would have been taken not only to Egypt with Israel, but then also with them at the Exodus and the forty years in the wilderness. Presumably it stayed in Jerusalem from the time of David until the fall of that city in 587 B.C.

The Stone of Israel Symbolized Jesus Christ, the Rock of Israel. There is evidence in the Bible that it might well have been this stone which was specifically indicated to have been the "stone of Israel" which symbolized Jesus Christ. During the blessing of Jacob to Joseph, he inserted parenthetically, "from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel"[24]. Although I couldn't find any place where the Bible states explicitly that the stone of Jacob accompanied the Israelites during their exodus from Egypt, Paul seems to imply it. He compares physical things such as the manna, water, and a rock which "followed" them to their spiritual counterparts which all symbolize Jesus Christ: Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea; And did all eat the same spiritual meat; And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.[25] Thus, the Rock of Salvation [26] which shepherded the Israelites, apparently referred to the physical Stone of Jacob. Of course, as Paul explained, it was symbolic of Jesus Christ, who also identified himself as the Good Shepherd of Israel [27]. If the identification with the Stone of Scone is correct, then it is a very plain looking piece of calcareous sandstone[, so ordinary that in preparing this article I noticed that several web pages describing the Stone of Scone were scoffing at how plain it is for the royalty to make such a fuss about. Thus, it has "no form nor comeliness" and "no beauty" that is should be desired, which is exactly how the Savior is described[28]. That led to it being "despised and rejected of men"[29]. Rejected by the Builders It may not only have been the original builders who discarded the stone. There is a also a tradition that when it came time to build the temple of Solomon, that the stone of Jacob, which was associated with the house of God from the beginning, should be included. But the builders rejected it because of the crack in it. There seemed to be no way that it could be a cornerstone to a temple. Nor did it seem to the Jews who saw the Savior that there was any way that he could be the Messiah, the cornerstone of their religion. Thus, both were despised and rejected. David prophesied that the stone would be rejected [30], and Jesus identified himself as fulfilling that prophecy. He explained that the "stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner"[31].

Knowing that Jesus Christ is the Rock of Israel[32], we have long understood that scripture in the spiritual sense. But now that we learn about the Stone of Jacob, we see that the prophecy might well have been fulfilled in the physical sense also. Is the Stone of Scone indeed the Stone of Jacob, which Jeremiah brought to Ireland, and on which British royalty has been coronated for so many centuries? Is there any way to verify these traditions, or will such ancient claims remain forever impossible to verify?

Geological Evidence

4. Geological Evidence In the age of modern scholarship it has become fashionable to demote all ancient history and tradition to the realm of legend, myth and fantasy. In many cases, that is like throwing out the baby with the bath water because there is usually a core of truth handed down in legend. In preparing this article, browsing the web for the "Stone of Scone" led to more articles ridiculing the traditions than those giving them any credence at all. Modern writers have assumed the Stone of Scone must have originated from a local quarry. I am only aware of two scientific attempts to determine the origin of the stone. The first was by Professor Totten of Yale University. In response to suggestions that it had come from a local quarry, he issued the statement:, "The analysis of the stone shows that there are absolutely no quarries in Scone or Iona where from a block so constituted could possibly have come, nor yet from Tara." The second study was done by Professor Odlum, who was a geologist and professor of theology at Ontario University. He made microscopic examinations of the stone, comparing it to quarries in both Scotland and Ireland, and found it dissimilar to stones from those areas. He became intrigued with the idea of that it might really be the stone of Jacob. That hypothesis could be tested scientifically by searching to see if a similar type of rock is found near Bethel, where Jacob found his stone. After considerable searching he found some strata rather high near a cliff that had exactly the type of composition he was looking for. He chipped off a piece and later performed microscopic tests. He concluded that his sample "matched perfectly" with the coronation stone. Desirous for even better proof he sought to get a little piece the size of a pea from the coronation stone, on which he could perform chemical tests. When he petitioned the Archbishop of Canterbury for such a piece, the reply was that it would take an act of Parliament signed by the King, and even then he wouldn't provide it. To the best of my knowledge that was the end of a really fine scientific experiment which could at least partially validate the claim that the stone might have come from Bethel. This is an excellent example of how science can indeed be used to validate historical traditions. They cannot provide proof, but can greatly add to the credibility of a story. What is needed now is a really thorough scientific study of the stone to verify its authenticity.


5. Conclusion Preliminary geological studies have indicated that the Stone of Destiny, upon which British monarchs have been crowned for centuries might indeed be the stone of Jacob as tradition asserts, because it matches a formation near Bethel, the Biblical location of the stone the Prophet Jacob found. Further scientific testing is now required, such as a thorough chemical composition comparison, and even that can only confirm the possibility that the stone is authentic. In any case, on this fiftieth anniversary of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, we can pause to pay respect to what very well might be the continuation of the unbroken line of succession of kings reigning over the children of Israel, from King David, over three thousand years ago.


  1. See for a complete summary of events.
  2. E. Raymond Capt has written several books which summarize much of the evidence. Most of the information in this article was taken from his book Jacob's Pillar, Muskogee OK, Artisan Publishers, 1977. The author wishes to thank Colette Thomas Smith and William L. Walker, Jr., who pointed out to him several of the books on the subject, many of which are available from those publishers.
  3. One son of Zedekiah named Mulek avoided being killed, and came to America and became king of the Mulekites. His seed continued as kings until the time of Zarahemla about 120 B.C., when the Mulekites merged with the Nephites whose kings descended from Joseph through Lehi [33]
  4. The lower branch must refer to Zerah, son of Judah, whose kingdoms in Great Britain would go on to surpass that of the Kingdom of Judah, which was ruled by the higher branch of Pharez.
  5. Argos and Athens, the early culture centers in Greece which helped establish its culture and laws, were founded by the Danai (named for Dan). Muller, in Fragmenta Historicorum II:385 summarizes: "Hecataeus [of Abdera, a fourth-century B.C. Greek historian], therefore, tells us that the Egyptians, formerly being troubled by calamities, in order that the divine wrath might be averted, expelled all the aliens gathered together in Egypt. Of these, some, under their leaders Danus and Cadmus, migrated to Greece." Another ancient historian, Diodorus, adds "Now the Egyptians say that also after these events a great number of colonies were spread from Egypt all over the inhabited world . . . They say also that those who set forth with Danaus, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city in Greece, Argos . . . Even the Athenians, they say, are colonists from Sais in Egypt." [34]. The Danai became associated with the Phoenicians, and gave them their alphabet (the Phoenician alphabet is same as ancient Hebrew), upon which the Greek alphabet was also based. The Bible mentions how Dan made ships during the period of the Judges (about 1300 B.C., Judges 5:17). Homer refers to all of Greece as Argos, and calls them Argives or Danai, but most Greeks are descended from Javan, son of Japheth [35]. The Argives apparently later became the Macedonians. See Gawler, J. C., Dan, Pioneer of Israel (London, 1880) reprinted by Artisan Publishers, 1984, pp 11-16. This was clearly part of how all the world would be blessed by the children of Abraham.
  6. The Milesians were said also to called Gadelians, but the latter were probably a group that came later from the same area, because they were said to have remained in "Gothland" for a century and a half before coming to Ireland [36]. I cannot help but notice the similarity of the name "Gadelian" and the name "Goth" to "Gad," one of the twelve tribes of Israel. I've never read of anyone else making that connection, so it might be merely a coincidence. Keatinge, in his History of Ireland p. 72 states, "The most ancient Irish chronicles assert that the Gadelians in general were called Scots because they came out of Scythia." [37]. The original source seems to be Annals of Ireland, by the Four Masters, "The Milesians, according to our old annalists, were originally a colony from Scythia, near to the Euxine and Caspian Seas, on the borders of Europe and Asia, and about the country now called Crimea. From these people, called the Scoti or Scots, Ireland got the name of Scotia." [38].
  7. Zerah is the usual spelling for this name [39]. The only time it is spelled Zarah is in the one verse describing his birth [40].
  8. David's promise of continually reigning descendants appears to be an extension of the same promise given to Judah. This article discusses the continuity of the regal line after David, but what about from Judah to David? Saul was from the tribe of Benjamin [41], and before that Israel was ruled by judges from various tribes. Where were the kings from Judah at that time? A manuscript from the Archives of Constantinople, which might well be the last chapter of the Book of Acts, states that the apostle Paul visited the British Isles, and that "certain of the Druids came unto Paul privately, and showed by their rites and ceremonies they were descended from the Jews which escaped from bondage in the land of Egypt, and the Apostle believed these things" [42]. If some Israelites escaped from Egypt as the bondage began, then Judah's descendants could have a continual reign beginning with Judah himself.
  9. The Greek tradition is that Cecrops was the founder and first king of Athens, and that his brother Darda was the founder of Troy. Both were said to have come from Egypt. Some researchers have concluded that they were none other than Calcol and >38804>Dara, sons of Zerah [43]. If so, it would mean that those cities were founded earlier than thought and that the founders left before, rather than after, the Egyptian bondage.
  10. The Scottish tradition is that his people were officially named "Scots" in honor of his wife, although they also say the name came from Scotia, their former home (Scythia): "the ancestor of the Scots was 'ane Greyk callit Gathelus (father of Eochaidh ...) son (descendant) of Cecrops of Athens, untherways of Argus, King of Argives' who came to Egypt when 'in this tyme rang (reigned) in Egypt Pharo ye scurge of ye pepill of Israel.' Gathelus gained a great victory for Pharo against 'the Moris and Pepil of Yned' and 'King Pharo gaif him his dochter, callit Scota, in marriage' It explicitly states that after they moved to Lusitana (Portugal) and built the city of Brigance, that he 'callit his subdittis (subjects) Scottis in honour and affeccioun of his wyiff.'" [44].
  11. Another regal line in England descending from David comes from Joseph of Arimathaea, who went to England shortly after the Crucifixion of Christ, and from whom King Arthur descended.
  12. According to Capt (p. 26), after the fall of Troy, about 1200 B.C., Aeneas, the last of the royal blood of Zerah, took what was left of his nation and moved to Italy. He married the daughter of Latinus, king of the Latins, and founded the Roman Empire. His son (or grandson) Brutus with a large party of Trojans, removed to England. He arrived about 1103 B.C. and made a contract with his kindred in Britian. He built his new capital called Caer Troia ("New Troy"). The Romans later called it "Londinium" and today it is known as London.
  13. The Companion Bible, quoted in Jacob's Pillar, p. 12. 16. Bethel was located within a few miles of what is now Ramallah, which is Yasser Arafat's headquarters.


  1. Ref: Scotland's People As shown for Mack #89204 and his son John Mack born 3/6/1653. Birth and Marriage and Wills Record - General Register for Scotland to 1538 -1680 (48 Mack marriages in Scotland) National Archives of Scotland (No wills for a John Mack.)
  2. Note: although birth records in the 1600s are scarce, another reason John Mack's March 6, 1653 birth records in Scotland may not be found is March 6, 1653 is the date that Sarah Bagley's parents (Orlando Bagley and Sarah Colby) were married and 100-200 years ago when the family record keeper was copying things down, she may have transposed the date??
  3. Note: I have not found a passenger list- just two famous Covenanters who sailed on the Anne and Hester.
  4. History of the Covenanters in Scotland" by William Sime pp. 163-164 quotes "The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland" by Reverend Robert Wodrow Vol. 3. p. 388 (1679) York County Heritage Trust, 250 East Market Street, York, PA, CD 2002 library also has printed version of my manuscript, "John McHaffie, the Covenanter, Banished From Scotland to America" c1 992 EPOdom Library has 1995, and 1998.
  5. Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England . . . Who Came Before May 1692" Vol. 1 p. 98, Vol. 2 pp. 481-482; Vol. 3 p. 140 and Vol. 4 pp. 19 (2), 533, 562 by James Savage (Published 1862) Marriage records of John and Sarah and birth of John Jr. and description of other families (McEwen, McCune and Paterson) from Scotland who sailed on the "John and Sarah" in 1651-2
  6. NOTE: The religious persecution of John Mack and his family in Scotland is chronicled by Reverend Robert Wodrow in: "The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland" Vol. 3. p. 388 (Published 1722) and "History of the Covenanters in Scotland" pp. 163-164 (Published 1837).
  7. Ref: 628/0010 0318 Frame 230. National Archives of Scotland - Marriage Records
  8. (Psalms 89:3- 4, 20-37)
  9. (Jer. 39:6)
  10. (Num. 27:8; 36:3)
  11. (Jer. 43:6)
  12. (Jer. 44:1-14)
  13. (Jer. 1:10)
  14. (Ezek. 17:22-24)
  15. (Scotia = Scythia)
  16. (Gen. 49:10, most likely referring to the second coming of Christ)
  17. (Gen. 38:28)
  18. (1 Samuel 10:24, 1 Kings 1:39)
  19. (Ex. 28:17-21)
  20. (2 Kings 11:14)
  21. (2 Chronicles 23:11-1 3)
  22. (Genesis 28:11-19).
  23. (Gen. 35:11)
  24. (Gen. 49:24, compare D&C 50:44)
  25. (1 Corinthians 10:1-4)
  26. (Psalms 95:1)
  27. (John 10:11)
  28. (Isa. 53:2)
  29. (Isa. 53:3)
  30. (Psa. 118:22)
  31. (Mat. 21:42, compare Acts 4:11)
  32. (2 Sam. 23:3)
  33. (Helaman 6:10, 8:21; Mosiah 25:2; Omni 1:19; Alma 10:3).
  34. (G.H. Oldfather, Diodorus of Sicily, 1933, vol 1, I:1-II:34, pg. 91, quoted in Capt, p. 26)
  35. (Gen. 10:2)
  36. (Gawler, p. 31)
  37. (Gawler, p. 41)
  38. (Gawler, p. 31)
  39. (Gen. 46:12, 1 Chron. 2:4, etc.)
  40. (Gen. 38:30)
  41. (1 Sam. 9:1-2)
  42. (E. Raymond Capt, The Lost Chapter of Acts of the Apostles, Artisan Publishers, Muskogee, OK, 1982, p. 6)
  43. (1 Chron. 2:6; Capt, Jacob's Pillar, p. 26)
  44. (The Chronicles of Scotland, by John Bellenden, 1531, vol. I, pgs. 21-27, quoted in Pillar of Jacob, p. 30)