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BOHUN, Earl Humphrey de VII[1]

Male 1249 - 1298  (~ 49 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document


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  • Name BOHUN, Humphrey de 
    Prefix Earl 
    Suffix VII 
    Born Sep 1249  Herefordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 31 Dec 1298  Pleshey, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Jan 1299  Saffron Walden, Essex, England, United Kingdom Find all individuals with events at this location 
    WAC 28 Jan 1931 
    _TAG Reviewed on FS 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I28768  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith
    Last Modified 19 Aug 2021 

    Father BOHUN, Humphrey de VI ,   b. Abt 1204,   d. 27 Aug 1265, Beeston Castle, Cheshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 61 years) 
    Mother BRAOSE, Eleanor de ,   b. 1228, Brevonshire, Brevonshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Oct 1313, Llanthony Inn, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 85 years) 
    Married England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F16126  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 FIENES, Countess Maud de ,   b. 1250, Walden, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 31 Aug 1298, Hertsford, Hertsfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 48 years) 
    Last Modified 24 Jan 2022 
    Family ID F16125  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 FIENES, Countess Maud de ,   b. 1231, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Nov 1298, Pleshey, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 67 years) 
    Married 1275 
    Notes 
    • ~SEALING_SPOUSE: Also shown as SealSp 26 Apr 1990, SLAKE.
    Children 
    +1. BOHUN, Earl Humphrey de VIII ,   b. 1276, Pleshey Castle, Pleshey, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Mar 1321, Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 45 years)
    Last Modified 24 Jan 2022 
    Family ID F16124  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos At least one living or private individual is linked to this item - Details withheld.

  • Notes 
    • The Encyclopedia Brittannica says "Humphrey VII lives in history as one of the recalcitrant barons of the year 1297, who extorted from Edward I the Confirmation Catarum." In this great accomplishment he was supported by Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk and Edmond de Mortimer. Third Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex. De Bohun (Boone) Chapter V - Humphrey VII de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex, born in the middle of the 13th century and died in 1298. Const. of England and was the grandson of Humphrey V, second Earl and son of Humphrey who predeceased his father, 27 August 1265, immediately after the Battle of Evesham at which he was made prisoner. Humphrey VII in 1296 was sent as escort to John, young Earl of Holland, lately married to the English Princess, Elizabeth, and now returning to claim his inheritance. The princess was in her 14th year and two years later was married to Humphrey de Bohun, the Earl's son. From this time until his death he played a conspicuous part in conjunction with Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, in opposing the measures of Edward I for arbitrary taxation. Humphrey VII served in the army of occupation in Wales 1286. In 1289 he was found levying private war against the Earl of Gloucester and was pre-emptorially ordered to keep the peace. BIRTH: Also shown as Born , Essex, Herefordshire, England.

      Shown as "Humphey (VI)" in Wikipedia, he is "Hunphrey (VII)", the seventh Humphrey, in the Medieval Lands Project (dvmansur, 4 July 2018).

      From Wkipedia, "Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford" (see link in Sources):

      Humphrey (VI) de Bohun (c. 1249[a] – 31 December 1298), 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex, was an English nobleman known primarily for his opposition to King Edward I over the Confirmatio Cartarum.[1] He was also an active participant in the Welsh Wars and maintained for several years a private feud with the earl of Gloucester.[2] His father, Humphrey (V) de Bohun, fought on the side of the rebellious barons in the Barons' War. When Humphrey (V) predeceased his father, Humphrey (VI) became heir to his grandfather, Humphrey (IV). At Humphrey (IV)'s death in 1275, Humphrey (VI) inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex. He also inherited major possessions in the Welsh Marches from his mother, Eleanor de Braose.

      Bohun's spent most of his early career reconquering Marcher lands captured by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd during the Welsh war in England. This was finally accomplished through Edward I's war in Wales in 1277. Hereford also fought in Wales in 1282–83 and 1294–95. At the same time he also had private feuds with other Marcher lords, and his conflict with Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, eventually ended with the personal intervention of King Edward himself. Hereford's final years were marked by the opposition he and Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, mounted against the military and fiscal policy of Edward I. The conflict escalated to a point where civil war threatened, but was resolved when the war effort turned towards Scotland. The king signed the Confirmatio Cartarum – a confirmation of Magna Carta – and Bohun and Bigod agreed to serve on the Falkirk Campaign. Bohun died in 1298, and was succeeded by his son, Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.

      Humphrey (VI) de Bohun was part of a line of Anglo-Norman aristocrats going back to the Norman Conquest, most of whom carried the same name.[3] His grandfather was Humphrey (IV) de Bohun, who had been part of the baronial opposition of Simon de Montfort, but later gone over to the royal side. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Lewes in May 1264, but was restored to favour after the royalist victory at the Battle of Evesham the next year.[4] Humphrey (IV)'s son, Humphrey (V) de Bohun, remained loyal to the baronial side throughout the Barons' War, and was captured at Evesham on 4 August 1265. In October that year Humphrey (V) died in captivity at Beeston Castle in Cheshire from injuries he had sustained in the battle.[5]

      Humphrey (V) had been excluded from succession as a result of his rebellion, but when Humphrey (IV) died in 1275, Humphrey (VI) inherited the earldoms of Hereford and Essex.[6] Humphrey (VI) had already served as deputy Constable of England under Humphrey (IV).[7] Humphrey (IV) had reserved the honour of Pleshey for his younger son Henry, but the remainder of his lands went to Humphrey (VI).[4] The inheritance Humphrey (VI) received – in addition to land in Essex and Wiltshire from Humphrey (IV) – also consisted of significant holdings in the Welsh Marches from his mother.[8] His mother Eleanor was a daughter and coheir of William de Braose and his wife Eva Marshal, who in turn was the daughter and coheir of William Marshal, regent to Henry III.[6]

      Since Humphrey (VI) was only sixteen years old at the time of his father's death, the Braose lands were taken into the king's custody until 1270.[1] Part of this inheritance, the Marcher lordship of Brecon, was in the meanwhile given to the custody of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford. Humphrey technically regained his lordship from Clare in 1270, but by this time these lands had effectively been taken over by the Welsh prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, who had taken advantage of the previous decade's political chaos in England to extend his territory into the Marches.[9]

      He granted his brother Gilbert de Bohun all of their mother's lands in Ireland and some land in England and Wales.

      In 1294 the French king declared the English duchy of Aquitaine forfeit, and war broke out between the two countries.[28] Edward I embarked on a wide-scale and costly project of building alliances with other princes on the Continent, and preparing an invasion.[29] When the king, at the parliament of March 1297 in Salisbury, demanded military service from his earls, Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, refused in his capacity of marshal of England. The argument was that the king's subjects were not obliged to serve abroad if not in the company of the king, but Edward insisted on taking his army to Flanders while sending his earls to Gascony.[30]
      Bohun and Bigod confront King Edward. Early 20th-century imaginary illustration

      At the time of the Salisbury parliament, Hereford was accompanying two of the king's daughters to Brabant, and could not be present.[31] On his return, however, as Constable of England, he joined Bigod in July in refusing to perform feudal service.[6] The two earls were joined in their opposition by the earls of Arundel and Warwick.[32] The main reasons for the magnates' defiance was the heavy burden of taxation caused by Edward's continuous warfare in Wales, France and Scotland. In this they were also joined by Robert Winchelsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, who was in the midst of an ongoing dispute with the king over clerical taxation.[33] At one point Bohun and Bigod turned up in person at the Exchequer to protest a tax they claimed did not have the consent of the community of the realm.[34] For Hereford there was also a personal element in the opposition to the king, after the humiliation and the affront to his liberties he had suffered over the dispute in the Marches.[35][36] At a meeting just outside London, Bohun gave an impassioned speech objecting to the king's abuse of power and demanding the restoration of ancient liberties. The grievances were summarised in a document known as the Remonstrances.[37]

      Neither party showed any inclination to back down, and the nation seemed on the brink of another civil war.[38] Just as the conflict was coming to a head, however, external events intervened to settle it. In September 1297, the English suffered a heavy defeat to the Scots at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.[39] The Scottish victory exposed the north of England to Scottish raids led by William Wallace. The war with Scotland received wider support from the English magnates, now that their own homeland was threatened, than did the war in France to protect the king's continental possessions.[40] Edward abandoned his campaign in France and negotiated a truce with the French king. He agreed to confirm Magna Carta in the so-called Confirmatio Cartarum (Confirmation of the Charters).[41] The earls consequently consented to serve with the king in Scotland, and Hereford was in the army that won a decisive victory over the Scots in the Battle of Falkirk in 1298.[7] Hereford, not satisfied that the king had upheld the charter, withdrew after the battle, forcing Edward to abandon the campaign.

      In 1275 Bohun married Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes, by his 2nd wife, Isabel (kinswoman of Queen Eleanor of Provence). She predeceased him, and was buried at Walden Priory in Essex. Hereford himself died at Pleshey Castle on 31 December 1298, and was buried at Walden alongside his wife.[6] They had one son Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, born around 1276.[42] The son was given possession of his father's lands and titles on 16 February 1299.[43] The young Humphrey also inherited his father's title of Constable of England.[44]

      A common theme in Humphrey de Bohun's actions was his fierce protection of what he regarded as his feudal privileges.[1] His career was marked by turbulence and political strife, particularly in the Marches of Wales, but eventually he left a legacy of consolidated possessions there. In 1297, at the height of the conflict between Edward I and rebellious barons, the king had actively tried to undermine Hereford's authority in the Marches, but failed due to the good relations the earl enjoyed with the local men.

  • Sources 
    1. [S72] Ancestral File (TM), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, (June 1998 (c), data as of 5 JAN 1998).