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FRANCE, Louis X

FRANCE, Louis X

Male 1289 - 1316  (26 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

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  • Name FRANCE, Louis 
    Suffix
    Nickname The Quarreller 
    Born 4 Oct 1289  Paris, Seine, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    _TAG Reviewed on FS 
    Died 5 Jun 1316  Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried 7 Jun 1316  St-Denis, Seine-Inférieure, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I45323  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith
    Last Modified 19 Aug 2021 

    Father FRANCE, King Philippe IV,   b. 28 May 1268, Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 29 Nov 1314, Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 46 years) 
    Mother NAVARRE, Princess Jeanne,   b. 4 Jan 1272, Bar-sur-Seine, Aube, Champagne-Ardenne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Apr 1305, Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 33 years) 
    Married 16 Aug 1284  Notre Dame, Paris, Seine, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F16677  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 BURGUNDY, Princess Marguerite,   b. 1290, Dijon, Cote d'Or, Bourgogne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 14 Aug 1315, Eure, Haute-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 25 years) 
    Married 23 Sep 1305  Vernon, Eure, Haute-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 25 Sep 2021 
    Family ID F23736  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Endeline,   b. 1290, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 25 Sep 2021 
    Family ID F23737  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 HUNGARY, Klemencia,   b. 1290, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married 19 Aug 1315  Paris, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 25 Sep 2021 
    Family ID F23738  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 4 Oct 1289 - Paris, Seine, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 19 Aug 1315 - Paris, France Link to Google Earth
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  • Notes 
    • Louis X of France
      Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarreler, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (French: le Hutin), was a monarch of the House of Capet who ruled as King of Navarre (as Louis I Basque: Luis I.a Nafarroakoa) and Count of Champagne from 1305 and as King of France from 1314 until his death.

      *King of France
      Reign 29 November 1314 – 5 June 1316
      Coronation 24 August 1315 (Reims)
      Predecessor Philip IV
      Successor John I

      *King of Navarre; Count of Champagne
      Reign 4 April 1305 – 5 June 1316
      Coronation 1 October 1307 (Pamplona)
      Predecessor Joan I and Philip I
      Successor John I

      Born4 October 1289 in Paris, France
      Died 5 June 1316 (aged 26) in Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, France

      Burial Saint Denis Basilica

      Spouse 1:
      Margaret of Burgundy (possibly poisoned or strangled after being imprisoned for adultery)
      Issue
      Joan II of Navarre

      Spouse 2:
      Clementia of Hungary
      Issue:
      King John I of France Nov 15, 1316- Nov 20, 1316

      House Capet

      Father
      Philip IV of France

      Mother
      Joan I of Navarre

      Religion
      Roman Catholicism

      Louis was the eldest son of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. His short reign as king of France was marked by the hostility of the nobility against fiscal and centralization reforms initiated by Enguerrand de Marigny, the Grand Chamberlain of France, under the reign of his father. Louis' uncle—Charles of Valois, leader of the feudalist party—managed to convince the king to execute Enguerrand de Marigny.

      In 1305, Louis had married Margaret of Burgundy, with whom he had Joan II of Navarre. Margaret was later convicted of adultery and died in prison, possibly murdered by strangulation. In 1315, Louis married Clementia of Hungary, who gave birth to John I of France a few months after the king's death. John's untimely death led to a disputed succession.

      Personality, marriage and coronation-
      Louis being crowned with his second wife, Clementia of Hungary.
      Louis was born in Paris, the eldest son of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. He inherited the kingdom of Navarre on the death of his mother, on 4 April 1305, later being crowned 1 October 1307.On 21 September 1305, at age 16, he married Margaret of Burgundy and they had a daughter, Joan. Louis was known as "the Quarreler" as the result of the tensions prevailing throughout his reigns.

      Both Louis and Margaret became involved in the Tour de Nesle affair towards the end of Philip's reign. In 1314, Margaret, Blanche and Joan—the latter two being the wives of Louis' brothers Charles and Philip, respectively—were arrested on charges of infidelity. Margaret and Blanche were both tried before the French parliament later that year and found guilty. Their alleged lovers were executed, and the women had their hair shorn and were sentenced to life imprisonment. Philip stood by his wife Joan, who was ultimately found innocent and released. Margaret would be imprisoned at Chateau Gaillard, where she died.

      On the death of his father in 1314, Louis became King of France. Margaret of Burgundy died on 14 August 1315 and Louis remarried five days later, on 19 August to Clementia of Hungary, the daughter of Charles Martel of Anjou and the niece of Louis' own uncle and close advisor, Charles of Valois. Louis and Clementia were crowned at Reims in August 1315.

      Domestic policy-
      Louis was king of Navarre for eleven years and king of France for less than two years. His reign was dominated by continual feuding with the noble factions within the kingdom, and major reforms designed to increase royal revenues, such as the freeing of the French serfs and the readmittance of the Jews. In 1315, Louis X published a decree proclaiming that "France signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed. This prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies.His Ordonnances des Roi de France, V, p.1311 declared that "as soon as a slave breathes the air of France, he breathes freedom"

      Regional leagues-
      By the end of Philip IV's reign opposition to the fiscal reforms was growing. With Philip's death and the accession of Louis, this opposition rapidly developed in more open revolt, some authors citing Louis' relative youth as one of the reasons behind the timing of the rebellions.Leagues of regional nobles began to form around the country, demanding changes.Charles of Valois took advantage of this movement to turn against his old enemy, Philip IV's former minister and chamberlain Enguerrand de Marigny and convinced Louis to bring corruption charges against him. When these failed, Charles then convinced Louis to bring sorcery charges against him instead, which proved more effective and led to de Marigny's execution at Vincennes in April 1315. Other former ministers were similarly prosecuted. This, combined with the halting of Philip's reforms, the issuing of numerous charters of rights and a reversion to more traditional rule, largely assuaged the regional leagues.

      Readmittance of the Jews and reform of serfdom-
      Louis receiving a diploma from the Jews, whom he readmitted to France under strict terms. Painting made in 14th century.
      In practical terms, Louis X effectively abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315. Louis continued to require revenues, however, and alighted on a reform of French serfdom as a way of achieving this. Arguing that all men are born free, Louis declared in 1315 that French serfs would therefore be freed, although each serf would have to purchase his freedom.A body of commissioners was established to undertake the reform, establishing the peculium, or value, of each serf.For serfs owned directly by the King, all of the peculium would be received by the Crown – for serfs owned by subjects of the King, the amount would be divided between the Crown and the owner. In the event, not all serfs were prepared to pay in this fashion and in due course Louis declared that the goods of these serfs would be seized anyway, with the proceeds going to pay for the war in Flanders.
      Louis was also responsible for a key shift in policy towards the Jews. In 1306, his father, Philip IV, had expelled the Jewish minority from across France, a "shattering" event for most of these communities.Louis began to reconsider this policy, motivated by the additional revenues that might be forthcoming to the Crown if the Jews were allowed to return. Accordingly, Louis issued a charter in 1315, readmitting the Jews subject to various conditions. The Jews would only be admitted back into France for twelve years, after which the agreement might be terminated; Jews were to wear an armband at all times; Jews could only live in those areas where there had been Jewish communities previously; Jews were initially to be forbidden from usury. This was the first time that French Jews had been covered by such a charter, and Louis was careful to justify his decision with reference to the policies of his ancestor Saint Louis IX, the position of Pope Clement V and an argument that the people of France had demanded a return of the Jews.The result was a much weakened Jewish community that depended directly upon the King for their right of abode and protection.
      Louis campaigning in Flanders, where he sought a military solution to the ongoing problem of the "immensely wealthy", quasi-autonomous province of France. Painting circa 15th century.
      Louis X continued the effort of his predecessor to achieve a military solution to the vexing problem of Flanders. The Count of Flanders ruled an "immensely wealthy state" which enjoyed a largely autonomous existence on the margins of the French realm; French kings claimed to exercise suzerainty over Flanders, but heretofore with little success. Philip IV had attempted to assert royal overlordship, but his army, led by Robert II of Artois, had been defeated at Courtrai in 1302;despite a later French victory at the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle the relationship remained testy and unsettled.

      Death & Legacy-
      Louis was a keen player of jeu de paume, or real tennis, and became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis out of doors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century".[29] In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.[30] In June 1316 at Vincennes, following a particularly exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was also suspicion of poisoning.[31] Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis is history's first tennis player known by name.[32] He and his second wife Clementia are interred in Saint Denis Basilica.

      Louis' second wife Clementia was pregnant at the time of his death, leaving the succession in doubt. A son would have primacy over Louis' daughter, Joan.[33] A daughter, however, would have a weaker claim to the throne, and would need to compete with Joan's own claims – although suspicions hung over Joan's parentage following the scandal in 1314.[34] As a result, Louis' brother Philip was appointed regent for the five months remaining until the birth of his brother's child, John I, who lived only five days. Louis' brother Philip then succeeded in pressing his claims to the crowns of France and Navarre.